The paper provides an overview based on results of qualitative research into transformations of the structure of the global economy. The main purpose of the paper is to show the importance of non-renewable natural resources as the key factor, beside entrepreneurship and innovativeness, of civilizational development. The paper characterises raw materials and consumables acquired from environmental resources, i.e. nanomaterials as well as critical elements and raw materials as the basis
for the new technologies and new products. It also defines the concept of reindustrialization in conditions of creating and implementing the principles of permanent and sustainable development. In particular, it indicates and analyses the factors that enable transition to a low-emission economy, and in the future to a circular economy. The paper characterises contemporary changes in the economic map of the world by identifying new growth and competitiveness poles. Against this background, the civilizational challenges facing the Polish economy have been presented.
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