The paper identifies unconventional techniques and technologies of exploitation of natural gas contained in shale rocks, i.e. drilling directional wells and hydraulic fracturing, against the background of the importance of natural gas for the world economy. The crucial importance of the innovative methods of extracting shale gas has been shown through the example of the impact of exploitation of unconventional gas deposits on halting the process of pushing the energy intensive industries out of the United States. The paper also highlights the importance of the dynamic increase in financial expenditure incurred by many countries on all continents on recognising and analysing gas deposits contained in rocks, hydrates or aquifers. As a result of geological exploration, the volume of global proven geological resources of unconventional gas is by 66% greater than the global resources of conventional natural gas deposits recognised over a period of many decades. The paper characterises the consequences of utilising the innovative methods of natural gas exploitation for raising the level of the sustainability and balance of the world economy development and also for the radical reduction of the cost of gas transport in the global scale.
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