The aim of the article is to identify critical processes in the context of the implementation of returnable packaging in e-commerce and potential risk factors of disruptions in the use of ecological reusable packaging in e-commerce logistics services provided by Arvato Poland Sp. z o.o. they are based in Warsaw. The study is in line with the objectives of the European Green Deal and the circular economy. The applied research methods and techniques included: elementary analysis, desk research analysis, in-depth face-to-face interviews, causal analysis and selected methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The empirical study was carried out in 2021 in two locations of Arvato Poland Sp. z o.o. A review of the literature on the subject indicates that the use of ecological returnable pack-
aging in e-commerce logistics is one of the available solutions with great potential to strengthen the sustainable development of the fashion industry. However, the conducted research revealed a high complexity of problems, mainly in the process of accepting, packing, shipping and returning the packaging, which was considered critical for handling e-commerce orders. An in-depth analysis using the Ishikawa diagram identified the causes of potential risk factors for disruptions in the use of reusable eco-packaging in the e-commerce market. It was indicated that improving the process of its implementation should focus on removing factors that make up the identified main categories of their causes.
The conclusions of the study can have practical applications to improve the functioning of cost-effective and environmentally friendly e-commerce logistics. The system approach used by the authors in the study of returnable unit packaging in the sustainable development of closed-loop e-commerce contributes to the reduction of the research gap in this thematic area. The issue of ecological reusable packaging is in the initial phase of cognitive research and pilot tests.
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