Economic effects of introducing a deposit-return system for packaging in Poland


waste management
deposit system
packaging waste
economic effects

How to Cite

Broniewicz, E., Larsson, A., Piontek, W., & Sidorczuk-Pietraszko, E. (2023). Economic effects of introducing a deposit-return system for packaging in Poland. Economics and Environment, 86(3), 169-185.


The introduction of a deposit-return system for certain packaging in Poland, scheduled for 2025 will be a significant change to the system of waste management instruments. The aim of the article is to identify and analyze the economic effects of the introducing such a system, with particular emphasis on plastic beverage bottles. Analysis of the newly introduced regulations, as well as projections based on data on packaging placed on the market and its recycling allowed us to estimate the scale of these effects, in quantitative and monetary terms. We concluded that the introduction of a deposit system in Poland would contribute to achieving the objectives set out in the Single Use Plastic directive; a goal that is unlikely to be met with the current system. This will be done at a lower cost than if the system remained in its current form.  



Act from 13 July 2023. Act amending the act packaging management and packaging waste. Journal of Laws 2023, item 1852. (in Polish).

Announcement of the Marshal of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland from 7 July 2023 on the announcement of the consolidate text of the act on waste act packaging management and packaging waste. Journal of Laws 2023, item 1658. (in Polish).

Bose, S. (2022). Policy Brief: Economic impacts to consumers from extended producer responsibility (EPR) regulation in the consumer packaged goods sector. Columbia School of Professional Studies. Columbia Climate School – the Earth Institute.

Broniewicz, E., Piontek, W., & Sidorczuk-Pietraszko, E. (2022). Analiza potencjalnego efektu proinflacyjnego planowanych zmian w gospodarce odpadami opakowaniowymi. Fundacja Ekonomistów Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych. (in Polish).

Broniewicz, E., Piontek, W., & Sidorczuk-Pietraszko, E. (2023). Analiza potencjalnych skutków niewprowadzenia w Polsce systemu kaucyjnego na butelki z tworzyw sztucznych o pojemności do 3l, w tym skutków dla rynku recyrkulatów PET. Białystok: Fundacja Ekonomistów Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych. (in Polish).

Council Decision (EU, Euratom) 2020/2053 of 14 December 2020 on the system of own resources of the European Union and repealing Decision 2014/335/EU, Euratom, Pub. L. No. 32020D2053, 424 OJ L (2020).

DEFRA. (2022). Extended Producer Responsibility for Packaging. Summary of consultation responses and Government response.

Directive (EU) 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment, Pub. L. No. 32019L0904, 155 OJ L (2019).

Directive 94/62/EC of European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste, Pub. L. No. 31994L0062, 365 OJ L (1994).

European Commission. (2023). Winter 2023 Economic Forecast: EU Economy set to avoid recession, but headwinds persist.

Krzywda, D. (2022). Closing the loop—Packaging waste management and the deposit system in Poland. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 26(2), 233-247.

Linderhof, V., Oosterhuis, F. H., van Beukering, P. J. H., & Bartelings, H. (2019). Effectiveness of deposit-refund systems for household waste in the Netherlands: Applying a partial equilibrium model. Journal of Environmental Management, 232, 842-850.

PAP. (2023, September 22). Europosłowie: budżet UE i unijna pomoc finansowa dla Ukrainy są zagrożone. Potrzebna presja na Von der Leyen i Michela. (in Polish).

Plastics Europe. (2022). Tworzywa – Fakty 2022. (in Polish).

RCL. (2022). Projekt ustawy o zmianie ustawy o gospodarce opakowaniami i odpadami opakowaniowymi oraz ustawy o odpadach. (in Polish).

Regulation (EU) 2022/1616 of 15 September 2022 on recycled plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with foods, and repealing Regulation (EC) No 282/2008, Pub. L. No. 32022R1616, 243 OJ L (2022).

Regulation of the Minister of Climate and Environment from 19 December 2021. Regulation on annual recycling rates for packaging waste in individual years until 2030. Journal of Laws 2021, item 2375. (in Polish).

Reloop. (2023). Global Deposit Book 2022. An Overview of Deposit Return Systems for Single-Use Beverage Containers. 2023/05/RELOOP_Global_Deposit_Book_11I202.pdf

Rhein, S., & Sträter, K. F. (2021). Intended and unintended effects of statutory deposit return schemes for single-use plastic bottles: Lessons learned from the German experience. GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 30(4), 250-256.

Watkins, E. (2019). Policy approaches to incentivise sustainable plastic design. OECD Environment Working Papers, 149, 1-61.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment


Download data is not yet available.