Pursuing European Green Deal milestones in times of war in Ukraine – a context of energy transition in Poland


European Green Deal
energy transition
sustainable development
renewable energy sources
war in Ukraine

How to Cite

Krawczyńska, Dominika, Bartłomiej Hadasik, Aleksandra Ryczko, Kornelia Przedworska, and Jakub Kubiczek. 2024. “Pursuing European Green Deal Milestones in Times of War in Ukraine – a Context of Energy Transition in Poland”. Economics and Environment 88 (1): 736. https://doi.org/10.34659/eis.2024.88.1.736.


Within the sustainable development (SD) paradigm, the European Green Deal (EGD) sets dynamic energy transition goals for the European Union (EU). However, diverse dynamics among member states, exacerbated by events like the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine, directly influence this progress. This paper aims to present the energy transition course in EU countries up against the implementation of the objectives of the EGD. This paper conducts a thematic (scoping) literature review and comparative analysis of energy transition progress in all EU countries, concentrating on Poland, which faces unique challenges, including a sluggish pace of energy transition and the effects of the Russian invasion on Ukraine in this regard. Recommendations for Poland include an intensified focus on investments in renewable energy sources (RES) and low-carbon installations. The results demonstrate that collective success in SD necessitates each EU member fulfilling national climate goals, emphasising the need for a unified commitment to navigate complexities and build a sustainable future.



Act from 25 August 2006. Act on the system of monitoring and controlling fuel quality. Journal of Laws No. 169, item 1200. https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/DocDetails.xsp?id=WDU20061691200. (in Polish).

Arezki, R., & Nysveen, P. M. (2022). Ukraine invasion: From oil sanctions to accelerating the energy transition. In L. Garciano, D. Rohner & B.W. di Mauro (Eds.), Global Economic Consequences of the War in Ukraine Sanctions, Supply Chains and Sustainability (pp. 84-87). Paris: CEPR Press.

Bąk, I., Budzeń, D., Kryk, B., & Sobczyk, A. (2023). Financial involvement of local government units in achieving environmental objectives of sustainable development in Poland. Economics and Environment, 86(3), 288-311. https://doi.org/10.34659/eis.2023.86.3.631

Bernaciak, A., Bernaciak, A., Zasada, K., & Lis, A. (2017). Possibilities of satisfying the energy needs of rural community residents with renewable energy sources – the case of Poland. Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica, 14(2), 59-63. https://doi.org/10.1515/aree-2017-0010

Cecchetti, S., Schoenholtz, K. L., & Berner, R. (2022, March 21). Russian sanctions: Some questions and answers. https://cepr.org/voxeu/columns/russian-sanctions-some-questions-and-answers

Choudhury, M., Sahoo, S., Samanta, P., Tiwari, A., Tiwari, A., Chadha, U., Bhardwaj, P., Nalluri, A., Eticha, T. K., & Chakravorty, A. (2022). COVID-19: An accelerator for global plastic consumption and its implications. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 1066350. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1066350

Ciucci, M. (2023). Renewable energy. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/ftu/pdf/en/FTU_2.4.9.pdf

Dąbrowiecki, P., Badyda, A., Chciałowski, A., Czechowski, P., & Wrotek, A. (2022). Influence of selected air pollutants on mortality and pneumonia burden in three Polish cities over the years 2011–2018. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(11), 3084. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11113084

Daudt, H. M. L., van Mossel, C., & Scott, S. J. (2013). Enhancing the scoping study methodology: a large, inter-professional team’s experience with Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-48

Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, Pub. L. No. 32018L2001, 328 OJ L (2018). http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2018/2001/oj

Dmuchowski, W., Gozdowski, D., Baczewska-Dąbrowska, A. H., Dąbrowski, P., Gworek, B., & Suwara, I. (2018). Evaluation of the impact of reducing national emissions of SO2 and metals in Poland on background pollution using a bioindication method. PloS One, 13(2), e0192711. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192711

EEA. (2022). Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2020 and inventory report 2022. Submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat. https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/annual-european-union-greenhouse-gas-1

Ember Climate. (2023). Ember’s Yearly Electricity Data. https://ember-climate.org/data-catalogue/yearly-electricity-data/

European Commission. (2018). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank, A Clean Planet for all: A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy, Pub. L. No. 52018DC0773. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52018DC0773

European Commission. (2019). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, The European Green Deal, Pub. L. No. 52019DC0640. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM%3A2019%3A640%3AFIN

European Commission. (2020). Commission Staff Working Document Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Digital Education action Plan 2021-2027. Resetting education and training for the digital age, Pub. L. No. 52020SC0209. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A52020SC0209

European Commission. (2021). Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the promotion of energy from renewable sources, and repealing Council Directive (EU) 2015/652, Pub. L. No. 52021PC0557. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52021PC0557

European Commission. (2022). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, REPowerEU: Joint European Action for more affordable, secure and sustainable energy, Pub. L. No. 52022DC0108. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM%3A2022%3A108%3AFIN

European Commission. (2023). National long-term strategies EU countries’ long-term strategies to meet their Paris Agreement commitments and the energy union objectives. https://commission.europa.eu/energy-climate-change-environment/implementation-eu-countries/energy-and-climate-governance-and-reporting/national-long-term-strategies_en

European Commission. (2023a). National energy and climate plans (NESPs). https://energy.ec.europa.eu/topics/energy-strategy/national-energy-and-climate-plans-necps_en

European Commission. (2023b). National long-term strategies. https://commission.europa.eu/energy-climate-change-environment/implementation-eu-countries/energy-and-climate-governance-and-reporting/national-long-term-strategies_en

European Commission. (n.d.). The EU and the United Nations – common goals for a sustainable future. https://commission.europa.eu/strategy-and-policy/sustainable-development-goals/eu-and-united-nations-common-goals-sustainable-future_en

European Council. (n.d.a). Paris Agreement on climate change. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/climate-change/paris-agreement/

European Council. (n.d.b). Taking the lead on climate change. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/eu-climate-change/

European Court of Auditors. (2023). Special Report 03/2023: Internal electricity market integration. https://www.eca.europa.eu/en/publications?did=63214

European Parliament. (2022). Green Deal: key to a climate-neutral and sustainable EU. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20200618STO81513/green-deal-key-to-a-climate-neutral-and-sustainable-eu

European Parliament. (2023). Internal energy market. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/45/wewnetrzny-rynek-energii

Eurostat. (2023). Air emissions accounts for greenhouse gases by NACE Rev. 2 activity - quarterly data. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/ENV_AC_AIGG_Q__custom_4845170/bookmark/bar?lang=en&bookmarkId=d454f847-b238-4c4a-b3da-9ffe6cf04467

Eurostat. (2023a). Share of energy from renewable sources. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/nrg_ind_ren/default/table?lang=en

Flaga-Maryańczyk, A., & Baran-Gurgul, K. (2022). The impact of local anti-smog resolution in Cracow (Poland) on the concentrations of PM10 and BaP based on the results of measurements of the state environmental monitoring. Energies, 15(1), 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010056

Główny Urząd Nadzoru Budowlanego. (2023). Centralna ewidencja emisyjności budynków – statystyki. https://www.gunb.gov.pl/podmenu/1713 (in Polish).

Gov.pl. (n.d.a). Rządowa Tarcza Solidarnościowa. https://www.gov.pl/web/chronimyrodziny/rzadowa-tarcza-solidarnosciowa (in Polish).

Gov.pl. (n.d.b). Rządowa Tarcza Energetyczna. from:https://www.gov.pl/web/chronimyrodziny/rzadowa-tarcza-energetyczna (in Polish).

Herudziński, T. (2021). Społeczna percepcja energetyki jądrowej w perspektywie procesów transformacji energetycznej w Polsce. Człowiek i Społeczeństwo, 52, 251-265. https://doi.org/10.14746/cis.2021.52.13 (in Polish).

Instrat. (2023). Mała aktualizacja Polityki Energetycznej Polski – post mortem. https://instrat.pl/pep2040-post-mortem/ (in Polish).

Jensen, C., & Mina, A. (2019). Did transition bring cleaner air? Effects of ownership, territorial and technology policy on air pollution. Ecological Economics, 165, 106276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.03.017

Jonek-Kowalska, I. (2022). Towards the reduction of CO2 emissions. Paths of pro-ecological transformation of energy mixes in European countries with an above-average share of coal in energy consumption. Resources Policy, 77, 102701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2022.102701

Khalid, B., Urbański, M., Kowalska-Sudyka, M., Wysłocka, E., & Piontek, B. (2021). Evaluating consumers’ adoption of renewable energy. Energies, 14(21), 7138. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217138

Kubiczek, J., Derej, W., Hadasik, B., & Matuszewska, A. (2023). Chemical recycling of plastic waste as a mean to implement the circular economy model in the European Union. Journal of Cleaner Production, 406, 136951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.136951

Kubiczek, J., Hadasik, B., Krawczyńska, D., Przedworska, K., & Ryczko, A. (2023a). Going beyond frontiers in household energy transition in Poland—a perspective. Frontiers in Energy Research, 11, e1239115. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2023.1239115

Lieb, L. C. (2022). Occupation and environmental sustainability: A scoping review. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(4), 505-528. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1830840

Ministerstwo Klimatu i Środowiska. (2022). Ekologiczne zachowania Polaków – raport “Klimat tworzą ludzie”. https://www.gov.pl/web/edukacja-ekologiczna/ekologiczne-zachowania-polakow-raport-klimat-tworza-ludzie (in Polish).

Ministry of Climate and Environment. (2021). Energy Policy of Poland until 2040 (EPP2040). https://www.gov.pl/web/climate/energy-policy-of-poland-until-2040-epp2040

Ordinance of the Minister of Climate and Environment from 23 December 2022 on quality requirements for solid fuels. Journal of Laws 2022, item 2856. https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/DocDetails.xsp?id=WDU20220002856 (in Polish).

Piekut, M. (2023). The dynamics of energy transition in European countries in years 2004-2021. Economics and Environment, 87(4), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.634

Pieńkowski, D. (2024). Is nuclear energy really sustainable? A critical analysis on the example of the Polish energy transition plan. Energy for Sustainable Development, 78, 101376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2024.101376

Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Pub. L. No. 32018R1999, 328 OJ L (2018). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32018R1999

Rume, T., & Islam, S. M. D.-U. (2020). Environmental effects of COVID-19 pandemic and potential strategies of sustainability. Heliyon, 6(9), e04965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04965

Sikora, A. (2021). European Green Deal – legal and financial challenges of the climate change. ERA Forum, 21(4), 681-697. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12027-020-00637-3

Sokołowski, J., & Bouzarovski, S. (2022). Decarbonisation of the Polish residential sector between the 1990s and 2021: A case study of policy failures. Energy Policy, 163, 112848. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2022.112848

Stanuch, M., & Firlej, K. A. (2023). Forecasting the development of electricity from renewable energy sources in Poland against the background of the European Union countries. Economics and Environment, 84(1), 30-50. https://doi.org/10.34659/eis.2023.84.1.536

van Bergeijk, P. A. G. (2022). Sanctions against the Russian war on Ukraine could be made to work. https://cepr.org/voxeu/columns/sanctions-against-russian-war-ukraine-could-be-made-work

Żuk, P., & Żuk, P. (2022). National energy security or acceleration of transition? Energy policy after the war in Ukraine. Joule, 6(4), 709-712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2022.03.009

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment


Download data is not yet available.