Classical economists have claimed that selfi sh behaviour and competition are the most effi cient way of resource allocation. Their concept of fairness according to one’s work was treated as the universal formula of resource allocation very much defi ned by the individualistic perspective. However, the concept of sustainable development refers to the idea of fairness according to the needs of
both present and future generations. This paper presents the sustainable perspective of fairness that postulates new forms of energy consumption related to the concepts of solidarity or social economies. The perspective is contrasted with the example of Friedman’s view, a famous advocate of market economy, to illustrate the differences and consequences for socio-economic development. Both the fairness systems are just in the terms of formal justice, despite the dispute regarding their fairness
formula; and this paper presents a strategy to the consumption of energy based on a reference point, which utilizes these two formulas to allocation energy resources. Additionally, this study seeks to present the role of the new socio-technical structures, which provide opportunities to create a wide range of goals beyond the narrow targets of energy production from renewables, including reduction of social and economic inequality or generation of social capital and resilient economies.
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