Purpose: Many policies aimed at developing sustainable transport are based on a (partial) exclusion of car drivers and on a decrease in rivalry between different transport users. In this context, the primary purpose of this study is to assess the impact of changes in levels of rivalry and excludability resulting from infrastructural changes in the transport system providing enhanced sustainable transport choices. Methodology/approach: Rivalry and excludability determine patterns of consumption and are the basis of many aspects of sustainable transport policies. Therefore, the key issue for policy making is to determine the extent to which changes in these features support sustainable transport choices. To attempt to understand these features, preliminary survey research was conducted among users of the Wrocław (Poland) transport system to investigate; (i) which changes in the transport system are the most important for respondents, (ii) how these changes influence the intensity of rivalry and excludability, and (iii) whether these changes lead to a shift in transport mode choice. Findings: Changes in the transport system led to decreased or unchanged intensity of rivalry. There were few examples of exclusion, which affected primarily car users. Modifications in the levels of the two analysed features were not accompanied by a permanent shift towards more sustainable transport choices. Originality/value: While many studies investigate changes in transport behaviour resulting from particular solutions that promote sustainable transport, this study focuses on how transport users react when faced with many different changes in the transport system. The novelty of this approach sheds light on transport choices resulting from changes in rivalry and excludability and the results obtained may assist evidence-based policy recommendations.
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