Economics and Environment 2023-05-23T09:51:44+02:00 Elzbieta Broniewicz, Editor in Chief Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Economics and Environment-Ekonomia i Srodowisko"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" is a leading Polish quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p> </p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance, social and economic geography and<br />spatial management, management and quality studies</p> <p><span style="color: #000000;"><em>Economics and Environment</em> is an<strong> Open Access</strong> journal that allows free unlimited access to its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users. It provides access to its content under the <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. Authors who publish with our journal agree to make the submitted article available under the terms of the above-mentioned <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. </span> </p> <p> </p> Determinants of climate security - an attempt at indicator analysis 2023-05-23T09:50:59+02:00 Paulina Szyja Dorota Michalak <p> The article addresses the issue of climate security, a topic not sufficiently explored in the literature. The article aims to fill the literature gap on explaining the link between climate change and security, defining the term climate security, and attempting to select indicators (based on a selection from those already existing) for diagnosing the level of climatic security. The research established a lack of studies clarifying the term climate security. Hence, the authors’ definition was adopted. In turn, a review of existing indicators indicated their limitations. Nevertheless, it allows us to verify whether there is a threat to climate security.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Forecasting the development of electricity from renewable energy sources in Poland against the background of the European Union countries 2023-05-23T09:51:14+02:00 Marcin Stanuch Krzysztof Adam Firlej <p>One of the key elements in the development of countries is energy stability particularly related to ensuring, among other things, continuity of power supply. The European Commission is trying to protect the security of energy supply by introducing internal conditions regarding the share of RES in everyday life. The aim of this article is to forecast the share of RES in electricity production for all the EU member states. The study covers the years 1985-2021, the research is based on two models: the autoregressive (AR) model and the Holt-Winters model, whereas the prediction values were determined for the period 2022-2030. The prediction values showed that Denmark, as the only one of the community countries, may turn out to be self-sufficient in terms of electricity production from RES already at the turn of 2026-2027. In the case of Poland, there is a high probability that the projected RES share for 2030 will not be met. Potentially, for most EU countries, the energy produced from RES will satisfy at least 50% of electricity demand by 2030. A projection of the chances of meeting the commitments presented in the National Energy and Climate Plans regarding the share of renewable energy sources in electricity production in the EU member states in 2030 indicates that they will not be met in most EU economies.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Change in natural gas utilisation in the context of sustainable energy management in Poland 2023-05-23T09:50:57+02:00 Alicja Graczyk Andrzej Graczyk Adam Węgrzyn <p>The energy transformation requires a change in the structure of the energy used. The article aims to determine the role of natural gas as a transition fuel in the European Union and Poland’s energy policy in the context of the promoted sustainable development policy. In the analysed documents presenting visions of energy policy, a differentiated approach to the effects of using natural gas is observed. The possible effects of using natural gas in Poland’s energy mix were analysed and evaluated. The study used the method of research document analysis. Six attributes of sustainable energy management and the relations between them were considered. The main results are as follows: 1. natural gas as an energy carrier does not fulfil the requirements of sustainable energy management, 2. from the point of view of utilisation effects, the use of natural gas for power generation purposes is better than using other fossil fuels, 3. in RES and nuclear energy development conditions, using natural gas for power generation will decrease, which should bring positive results for sustainable energy management. The main conclusion is the energy transition is mainly driven by political factors. Therefore, the energy carriers’ sustainable management issue shall be approached comprehensively.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Relation of CO2 emission allowance prices and electricity prices in Poland in 2013-2020 2023-05-23T09:50:54+02:00 Przemysław Bielecki <p>This paper investigates the relation between the prices of CO<sub>2</sub> emission allowances in the EU ETS (Emission Trading System), and wholesale prices of electricity in Poland. Linear regression models were used to assess carbon price pass-through rate to wholesale electricity prices during the entire III phase of ETS (2013-20). It has been found out that the entire cost of CO<sub>2</sub> emission allowances was included in wholesale electricity price. As expected, the peak transmission parameter is higher than the off-peak one. Nevertheless the difference is small, and statistically insignificant, hence the model does not allow for any far-reaching conclusions in this regard. Results show, that electricity producers were able to pass the entire emission related costs to the customers, which might rise a question whether EU ETS is an effective tool to give sufficient incentives to decarbonise electricity production.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment The reporting of climate-related information by CSR leaders in Poland: a climate-related disclosures index 2023-05-23T09:51:28+02:00 Ewa Jastrzębska <p>The article measures the scope of reporting climate-related information by companies considered CSR leaders in Poland. An original tool is employed for that purpose: a climate-related disclosures index. First, a critical comparative analysis was performed of climate-related disclosure initiatives (regulations, guidelines, standards) to pinpoint the key and commonly required disclosures. Next, an original index of climate-related disclosures was designed. It helped compute index values for 20 companies perceived as Poland’s CSR leaders. Non-financial reports available in the public domain were analysed for that purpose. The study showed that virtually all climate-related disclosure initiatives implement, to a greater or lesser extent, the TCFD recommendations, which were also embedded in the developed index covering 18 indicators. The total index value (ranging from 0 to 1) for the analysed companies was 0.51 with the median of 0.42. The index demonstrates that companies named CSR leaders in Poland do not display high awareness of climate change.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Education for sustainable development in Polish institutions of higher education – present and future 2023-05-23T09:51:39+02:00 Agnieszka Lorek Elżbieta Lorek Wiesław Koczur wiesł <p>Education for sustainable development is still developing as a broad and comprehensive concept that includes related content on the environment, economy and society. Key issues of sustainable development include, among others, economic issues, production and consumption models, natural resource management, environmental protection, development models, poverty reduction, civic rights, democracy, governance etc. These issues are very diverse and require a holistic approach to teaching. The objective of this article is to diagnose and evaluate the current state of education for sustainable development in Polish higher education institutions, with particular emphasis on the EU in Katowice and to identify the directions of change. This article was written based on the Authors’ many years of scientific and teaching experience. It was also supported by a survey conducted in the year 2020/2021 among the students at the University of Economics in Katowice, which allowed them to identify directions for future educational activities.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Assessment of the possibility of locating electric car charging stations using Fuzzy AHP and GIS – the case of Łódź, Poland 2023-05-23T09:51:09+02:00 Paulina Szterlik-Grzybek Adam Kucharski <p>This paper examines the possibility of locating electric vehicle charging stations using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and GIS. The study presents an integrated approach, which can be helpful in spatial planning. Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in using alternative power sources for motor vehicles. It is stimulated by top-down factors, such as regulations introduced by the European Commission or the introduction of the so-called “clean transport zones” by some local governments, as well as the bottom-up ones, including the increase in the cost of maintaining fossil fuel-powered cars. Local governments can employ the analysis presented in the paper to find a coherent development strategy for using electric vehicles (EVs) in cities. Based on the verified hypothesis, the Łódź city area has diverse suitability for EV charging stations, with predominant unfavourable regions for such investments. The research aims to find the methodology for performing the suitability analysis to locate new infrastructure elements in an urban space.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Wrocław public transport passengers’ satisfaction survey by means of CSI and IPA 2023-05-23T09:51:22+02:00 Izabela Dziaduch <p>The purpose of this paper was to assess the level of satisfaction of passengers using public transport services in Wrocław and to identify the quality characteristics that the service provider needs to improve if it wants to increase the overall quality of its services. The passenger satisfaction survey was conducted according to the stages of the developed procedure outlined in the article. In pursuit of the stated goal, CSI and IPA were used. The main measurement tool used was a survey questionnaire. The survey was conducted on a sample of 500 respondents, which allows us to trust the results at 95%, assuming an “estimation error” of ± 5%. A total of 14 transport demands were selected to evaluate the level of satisfaction of passengers using services provided by MPK Wrocław. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Statistica 13.3 software and using functions and commands available in Microsoft Excel. The results obtained allowed us to conduct a detailed analysis related to the level of the services quality of the Wrocław’s public transport. These results should be used by urban transport organisers and operators to shape their transport offerings, primarily in terms of increasing the quality of transport services. This is very important since it is, among other things, the quality of public mass transport that determines the quality of life of residents, as well as the conditions for economic development of the transport network.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Returnable packaging in e-commerce from socio-economic perspective – research results 2023-05-23T09:51:24+02:00 Joanna Górniak Agnieszka Bukowska-Piestrzyńska <p>Growth in online sales results in an increase in the number of containers remaining in economic circulation, causing both economic (increased costs of container production, storage and disposal) and environmental effects. One way to reduce the scale of this problem would be to introduce reusable packaging, which enterprises could use as part of their e-commerce solutions. The question remains, however, whether the customers are ready for this. What is their opinion on implementing such a solution? Would they be willing to pay a deposit for using such containers? This paper aims to suggest individual returnable packaging solutions that can be used in e-commerce to manifest corporate social responsibility and reflect customer attitudes towards them. The paper is empirical, with the empirical part presenting the results of the author's study.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment The quality of well waters in Poland – a study case 2023-05-23T09:51:17+02:00 Izabela Kruszelnicka Dobrochna Ginter-Kramarczyk Michał Michałkiewicz Marianna Ciślak Wojciech Góra <p>The aim of this study was to analyse the quality and compare the functional value of water from traditionally dug and drill wells located in west Poland. Basic physicochemical&nbsp; and microbiological (Escherichia coli in 100 ml, coliform bacteria in 100 ml, enterococci in 100 ml, total number of bacteria in 1 ml grown at 22 °C, total number of bacteria in 1 ml grown at 36 °C)&nbsp; were determination for the&nbsp; water samples. Additionally, some waters samples were analysed of the presence of heavy metals , TN (total nitrogen), TOC (total organic carbon) and NPOC (dissolved organic carbon). The conducted research has indicated that mineral and microbiological contamination occurs in the waters collected from the wells. This confirms that the wells were not sufficiently protected and that penetration of pollutants into the water occurs from their immediate surroundings, geological layers with which underground water resources come into contact.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Perception of ecosystem services provided by carp ponds in Pasłęk, Poland 2023-05-23T09:51:41+02:00 Konrad Turkowski Michał Dubrowski <p>An assessment of perceptions of fishpond ecosystem services was conducted in Pasłek, a town located in northeastern Poland. Ninety-four expert interviews were conducted with non-fishermen. The survey included a list of 28 possible ecosystem services provided by fishponds. Environmental benefits were considered the most important, followed by social and productive services. Respondents rated the ponds' function as a place for fish spawning and reproduction highest, followed by their role as fire reservoirs and as a place for recreation and leisure. A comparison with other surveys showed that perceptions of ecosystem services in local surveys could be influenced by a number of conditions, including, among others, the nature and location of fish ponds. The survey showed that people not involved in fisheries and fish farming are aware of the wide range of ecosystem services fishponds provide. This is a positive social recommendation for European fisheries policy, which aims to develop aquaculture without deteriorating the environment, creating a balanced relationship between producers and consumers of production and non-production aquaculture products.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Share of mechanical-biological installation of waste processing (mbp) in the level of recycling and preparation for re-use of paper, metals, plastics, and glass achieved by municipalities 2023-05-23T09:51:44+02:00 Anna Krysztopik Izabela Anna Tałałaj Paweł Biedka <p>The article aims to determine the share of mechanical-biological installation of waste processing (MBP) in the levels of recycling and preparation for the reuse of paper, metals, plastics, and glass (PMPG) achieved by municipalities. Two MBP installations were taken for the analysis - with the highest and the lowest share of municipalities in the Podlaskie Voivodship (Poland), which reached the recycling level required in 2019. In order to determine the share of MBP installations in the level of recycling achieved by communes, the share of the mass of recycled PMPG waste segregated from mixed municipal waste was calculated: in the total mass of generated PMPG waste and in the total mass of recycled PMPG waste from the municipal waste stream. On the basis of the conducted analyses, it should be stated that the MBP installation may have an impact on the achievement by municipalities of the recycling level required by law.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Development barriers of agricultural biogas plants in Poland 2023-05-23T09:51:19+02:00 Anita Bednarek Anna Klepacka Aleksandra Siudek <p>The article aims to identify barriers related to developing agricultural biogas plants in Poland. The secondary data was supplemented by primary data from a questionnaire conducted among employees of an enterprise whose biogas production is one of the elements of the circular economy. The results of the research revealed that the majority of respondents indicated external, systemic and developmental obstacles. The largest percentage of responses concerned the lack of stable legal regulations in the scope of renewable energy sources, including biogas plants, and the lack of programs financing the construction of agricultural biogas plants. Moreover, the respondents pointed to the proposals that could improve the development of agricultural biogas plants in the future. The respondents considered updating and ensuring the profitability of investments in the situation of significantly higher expenditures, growing costs of business and debt servicing through the reference price as a significant motivator, as well as inclusion in the support system of tariffs guaranteeing a stable income for at least 15 years. Barriers to developing agricultural biogas plants in Poland remain unchanged, and the awareness of the positive impact of agricultural biogas plants on many levels is still very low.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Changes in the Polish market for agricultural organic products 2023-05-23T09:51:02+02:00 Karol Kociszewski Andrzej Graczyk Magdalena Sobocińska magdalena.sobociń Joanna Krupowicz Krystyna Mazurek-Łopacińska <p>This paper attempts to identify changes in the factors influencing the functioning and evolution of the Polish market for organic agricultural products. It brings together the results of surveys of farmers (carried out in 2011, 2019, and 2021), distributors (carried out in 2019 and 2021), and consumers (carried out in 2009 and 2021). Initially, farmers believed that the greatest opportunities for market development lay in demand factors, including in particular consumer environmental awareness. In 2021, their opinions worsened in this regard, which means they had difficulties reaching consumers. Another opportunity that was less popular than before was the EU subsidies. This is due to administrative and bureaucratic burdens, which, along with high production costs and weak links between farmers and distributors, were considered to be the biggest barriers to market development. For distributors, the survey produced similar conclusions. According to consumers, the greatest opportunities for market development result from increasing environmental awareness, increased diversity of products and better promotion. The barriers they highlighted include high prices, limited environmental education, lack of adequate state support, and insufficient information about the offer.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Development vs efficiency of Polish farms - trade-off or synergy effects? 2023-05-23T09:51:06+02:00 Aleksander Grzelak Łukasz Kryszak <p>he article aims to determine the nature of the relationship between farm development and its technical efficiency understood from the perspective of data envelopment analysis (DEA). The time scope of the analysis refers to the period 2004-2019. The empirical part of the article is based on the individual unpublished data for Polish farms conducting agricultural accounting according to Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). We employed a super-efficiency slack-based DEA model with variable returns to scale. This model enables us to compare and rank efficient farms as well as investigate the sources of farm (in)efficiency. We did not identify the substitution (trade-off) effect between farms` sustainability and efficiency. For level of technical efficiency and these differences were statistically significant. The main policy recommendation that can be derived from these results is that agricultural policy should support both efficiency improvements and progress toward higher sustainability.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Energy literacy in Czechia and its influence on citizens’ perception of energy consumption behaviour 2023-05-23T09:50:21+02:00 Roman Buchtele Eva Cudlínová Miloslav Lapka Nikola Sagapova Martiná Krásnická Jan Vávra Zuzana Dvořáková Líšková <p>The analysis is based on a sample of 1015 citizens from Czechia. The cognitive energy literacy index (CELI), based on the knowledge of the energy mix in electricity production and the knowledge of the import/export of electricity in Czechia, is constructed in this article. The research aims to answer the following questions: What is the level of CELI within the population of Czechia? To what extent do the selected socio-demographic indicators affect the CELI? To what extent does CELI influence respondents' perceptions?</p> <p>The medium level of CELI is widespread across the population, while high and low levels of CELI are roughly equally shared. People with a high CELI are more likely to be older men with a university education. CELI also significantly affects the perception of behaviour on an individual, collective, and systemic level. Higher CELI is also associated with higher support for innovative solutions and renewable energy resources.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment The role of credit rating of the ESG debt instruments issuers 2023-05-23T09:51:36+02:00 Sylwia Frydrych <p>The aim of this article is to assess whether having a creditworthiness assessment from more than one credit rating agency by issuers of ESG debt instruments affects the number of issues and the average amount issued. The empirical research was carried out using the observation method and the analysis of source documents. In the analysed period, 53.38% of issuers received ratings at least from one CRAs as S&amp;P, Moody’s, and Fitch. The results of the conducted research indicate that the number of ESG debt instruments and the average issue amount were affected by the number of ratings given to the issuer. A database collected from Refinitiv Eikon for the period between 2012 and 2021 allows us to conclude that it is enough to have two credit ratings. The conclusions of this study can be used in the process of obtaining financing for ESG projects.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment What experiences do tourists seek in national parks? Analysis of TripAdvisor reviews 2023-05-23T09:51:12+02:00 Marek Nowacki Agnieszka Niezgoda <p class="Abstract">The article aims to analyse and compare experiences gained by tourists visiting three national parks in Poland. The authors focused on the following questions: What are people's experiences visiting national parks in Poland? Do the natural assets of the national parks affect visitors' unique experiences, or are environmentally valuable areas not crucial for their experiences? The authors used mixed quantitative (text mining, correspondence analysis) and qualitative (content analysis) methods. The data for analysis were opinions written by TripAdvisor users. Reviews on TripAdvisor indicate that the most important experiences for tourists in the National Parks studied were Nature appreciation and Physical activity. The other groups of experiences reflected in the reviews were: Aesthetic, Connection, Tension and Excitement. This confirms that nature is the most important feature of national parks for tourists, but it also indicates a trend to maintain good health and the desire to regenerate physical strength in areas of natural beauty.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment Summaries in Polish 2023-05-13T08:02:55+02:00 Economics and Environment and Environment <p>Summaries in Polish</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment