Economics and Environment 2024-05-16T16:31:40+02:00 Elzbieta Broniewicz, Editor in Chief Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" is an international quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources published in Poland. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the electronic version.</p> <p><strong>e-ISSN </strong>2957-0395, <strong>ISSN </strong>2957-0387</p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p><strong>Impact Factor = 0.4</strong></p> <p><strong>CiteScore (2022) = 0.8</strong></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry; agriculture and horticulture</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance; social and economic geography and spatial management; management and quality studies; law</p> <p><strong>4. The field of science and natural sciences:</strong> biotechnology</p> <p><span style="color: #000000;"><em>Economics and Environment</em> is an<strong> Open Access</strong> journal that allows free unlimited access to its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users. It provides access to its content under the <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. Authors who publish with our journal agree to make the submitted article available under the terms of the above-mentioned <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. </span> </p> <p> </p> Counteracting climate change in the context of implementing sustainable development in economic and social aspects 2024-04-08T16:18:21+02:00 Beata Skubiak Mirosław Broniewicz Paulina Grabowska <p>The aim of the article is to present the current state of knowledge about climate change, the causes of these changes, and potential effects, both environmental, economic, and social. To achieve the formulated goal, the author attempts to interpret original research results in the area of climate change, as well as actions taken (at various levels) in the field of climate policy. This is intended to answer the question of whether the idea of sustainable development at the social and economic level is realistic in the context of climate policy. In the ongoing debate, the problem of adaptation to climate change has given way to the problem of pollutant emissions, and the available scientific knowledge is insufficient to predict what changes the climate will undergo in the coming decades and what impact humans will have on these changes. Based on the analyses carried out, the author of the article concludes that emphasis should be placed on solutions that support human well-being and minimise losses. Environmental protection, if it is to remain a science, must take responsibility for the entire environment, including human well-being, and cannot be done at the expense of human beings because it destroys the natural social order. The article verifies the following hypothesis: decisions made in the field of climate policy are insufficiently justified by scientific research, which provides irrefutable facts.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Towards sustainable development in the European Union: a critical raw materials perspective 2024-04-29T16:26:47+02:00 Justyna Tomala Maria Urbaniec <p>Sustainability is a key goal of the European Union, which is seen as a global leader of change in tackling climate change, as well as building green economic sustainability, leading to greater social prosperity. A milestone of sustainable development to support the European Union in achieving climate neutrality is the European Green Deal. Its initiatives aim to build a competitive and innovative EU economy while respecting and protecting the environment. According to current priorities, the European Union aims to become the first climate-neutral continent by 2050, thanks to critical raw materials. The purpose of this article is to analyse and assess the impact of critical raw materials on the sustainability of the European Union. The study uses a scoping review methodology and statistical analysis based on the Shapiro-Wilk test and Spearman correlation coefficient. The results show that critical raw materials are important for achieving sustainable development and implementing the EU economy towards climate neutrality. This paper contributes to the literature on sustainability. It can also provide important information for policymakers to understand how to shape green policies in the context of the strategic importance of critical raw materials in the transformation of an eco-innovative economy.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The determinants of municipal solid waste management efficiency in EU countries 2024-05-09T16:30:04+02:00 Monika Osińska <p>The main purpose of this paper is to assess the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) efficiency of European Union countries and to identify the determinants of this efficiency before and after introducing Directive (EU) 2018/851. The research was conducted for 23 EU Member States in order to analyse the two highest-priority waste treatment methods (material recycling and energy recovery) and the level of greenhouse gases emitted by the waste management sector. The data for 2015-2020 were extracted from the Eurostat database. The period of data was divided into two sub-periods: 2015-2017 (the period before introducing the Directive) and 2018-2020. MSWM efficiency scores were calculated using the DEA method. Later, the Tobit Regression Model (TRM) was applied to identify the determinants. The efficiency analysis showed that the countries which joined the EU before 2000 improved their MSWM efficiency in 2018-2020 compared with 2015-2017. On the other hand, the average efficiency scores of the countries that joined the EU after 2000 decreased. In 2015-2017, the following determinants of MSWM efficiency occurred to be statistically significant: population density, unemployment rate, the number of patents and the tourism intensity index, while in 2018-2020: population density, unemployment rate, Research &amp; Development (R&amp;D) expenditure, higher education proportion and MSW generated. A detailed analysis of these variables showed that the countries that joined the EU after 2000 should first increase their R&amp;D expenditure and support their inhabitants in increasing their educational level.</p> 2024-05-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Pursuing European Green Deal milestones in times of war in Ukraine – a context of energy transition in Poland 2024-05-09T16:29:48+02:00 Dominika Krawczyńska Bartłomiej Hadasik Aleksandra Ryczko Kornelia Przedworska Jakub Kubiczek <p>Within the sustainable development (SD) paradigm, the European Green Deal (EGD) sets dynamic energy transition goals for the European Union (EU). However, diverse dynamics among member states, exacerbated by events like the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine, directly influence this progress. This paper aims to present the energy transition course in EU countries up against the implementation of the objectives of the EGD. This paper conducts a thematic (scoping) literature review and comparative analysis of energy transition progress in all EU countries, concentrating on Poland, which faces unique challenges, including a sluggish pace of energy transition and the effects of the Russian invasion on Ukraine in this regard. Recommendations for Poland include an intensified focus on investments in renewable energy sources (RES) and low-carbon installations. The results demonstrate that collective success in SD necessitates each EU member fulfilling national climate goals, emphasising the need for a unified commitment to navigate complexities and build a sustainable future.</p> 2024-05-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The implementation of the “Clear air” Programme in Poland including voivodeships 2024-03-22T16:07:05+01:00 Dariusz Rajchel Anna Rajchel <p>Air pollution is a global problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Climate warming, increasingly difficult access to drinking water resources, and desertification of areas have all resulted in population migrations in search of better areas to live and work. High mortality rates due to smog and crop, soil, and water pollution are just some of the problems facing the whole civilised world. In 2019, in response to these and other climate challenges, the EU adopted the Green Deal, a strategy whereby the EU member states have committed to an energy transition. Climate neutrality, according to the document, should be achieved by 2050. From 2018 to 2029, the government program “Clean Air” will be implemented in Poland with the aim of reducing environmentally damaging emissions from heating single-family houses with harmful fuel in old and polluting stoves. The article presents the program's assumptions in relation to the priorities of the European Green Deal and statistical data concerning the replacement of boilers under the “Clean Air” program by province, the use of various heat sources in Poland, as well as the demand for each heat source based on the number of applications submitted. The paper highlights two aspects related to the functioning of the “Clean Air” program, the first of which is economic in character and pertains to heat source replacement costs, whilst the second concerns the management of renewable energy sources. Statistical data referred to in this article were finalised as of December 2022.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Conditions and possibilities of using e-logistics in manufacturing enterprises 2024-03-22T16:05:43+01:00 Daniel Tokarski Maciej Bielecki <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Progressing globalisation, competitiveness and implemented technological innovations constitute important challenges for enterprises operating in such a turbulent environment. Organisations are forced to adapt much faster and more flexibly to rapidly changing market conditions. Manufacturing companies realise that it is impossible to meet market requirements by constantly using conventional methods of operation, especially in the sphere of physical flows of goods, information and financial resources, for which logistics is responsible. One of the solutions that can support manufacturing companies is e-logistics, which enriches logistics phases and processes in the sphere of information technology (IT) and information and communication technologies (ICT). The aim of the study is to identify the conditions and possibilities of using e-logistics in Polish manufacturing enterprises.<br /></span></p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Heating and cooling degree-days vs climate change in years 1979-2021. Evidence from the European Union and Norway 2024-03-22T16:06:50+01:00 Sylwia Pangsy-Kania Justyna Biegańska Floros Flouros Aneta Sokół <p>Energy consumption depends strongly on weather conditions. Thus, to formulate energy-related policy goals, it is crucial to monitor changes related to the heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD) – widely applied indicators of climate change. The study investigated the impact that climate change (global warming) exerted on the number of HDD and CDD, as well as the weather-related final energy consumption of the European households (EU-27 and Norway), based on data derived from Eurostat for the period 1979-2021. The results indicate that the changes in HDD and CDD constituted non-linear functions of the country’s average temperature, with the largest percentage changes observed in the warmest (in the case of HDD) and the coldest (in the case of CDD) portion of European countries. As indicated by estimations based on first-difference linear regression models, climate change has contributed so far to the net decrease in weather-related energy consumption of households.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The significance of organic farming in the European Union from the perspective of sustainable development 2024-05-15T16:30:41+02:00 Anna Nowak Anna Kobiałka <p>This study aimed to evaluate the status of organic farming in the member states of the European Union, drawing on its potential and selected elements of the organic agri-food products market. To this end, we used several partial indicators and a synthetic measure, which allowed us to create a ranking of the member states depending on the development level of organic farming. The survey showed a 50% increase in the utilised agricultural area allocated for organic farming in the EU from 2015 to 2021 and a 69% increase from 2012 to 2021. So far, the only member state to meet the target set by the Green Deal, that is, 25% of organic UAA, has been Austria. Considering the synthetic index, Portugal is a leader of organic farming development. In addition, differences exist between EU member states in consumers’ expenditure on organic products.</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Monitoring and evaluation system for revitalization programmes in Germany 2024-05-10T16:29:38+02:00 Natalia Dziarmakowska <p>Monitoring and evaluation should form the foundation of revitalisation programme management. The literature on the subject points to a general reluctance of municipalities to assess the effects of implemented revitalisation programmes, as well as the difficulties that municipalities encounter during this process. In Germany, in 2013, the federal and state governments, along with municipal associations, adopted an inter-programme concept for the evaluation of revitalisation programmes. This concept represents the first systematic structure for monitoring and evaluation of revitalisation programmes. The aim of the article is to present the assumptions of this concept and provide an overview of the experiences gained so far in its implementation. The study was based on desk research, an in-depth individual interview, the case study method, and an email interview.</p> 2024-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Microbiology of post-fermentation leachate 2024-04-10T16:19:15+02:00 Justyna Zamorska Monika Zdeb Andżelika Domoń Adam Masłoń <p>Using post-fermentation leachate as fertilizer is a good alternative and solution to the problem of waste at wastewater treatment plants and contains the principles of sustainable development. Leachate from anaerobic treatment of sewage sludge contains valuable elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, which can improve soil properties. The production of liquid fertilizer minimizes the negative impact of leachate on the main biological stream in the WWTP and improves the energy efficiency of the entire wastewater treatment system. This transfers into the operating costs of the facility. When thinking about the agricultural use of digestion leachate and its introduction into the environment, a very important issue is its microbiological contamination. The purpose of the conducted research was to determine the microbiological quality of digestion leachates from municipal wastewater treatment plants and to determine the parameters of their hygienization. The number of bacteria in raw leachate is indicative of a sanitary risk in the case they are used in agriculture as fertiliser. Heating the leachate at 60°C for 15 minutes produces an effect comparable to that achieved by heating the leachate to 70°C. The sonication process itself did not affect the better temperature effect. Heating the leachate for 20 minutes after prior sonication for 20 minutes does not result in the complete elimination of microflora.</p> 2024-04-10T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Human capital for the green economy 2024-05-09T16:29:30+02:00 Magdalena Kozera-Kowalska <p>This study aims to assess the market availability of human capital for the needs of the green economy under the conditions of the changing labour market in Poland. It is a theoretical and analytical study based on desk research and critical analysis of available factual information. Based on an analysis of quantitative data describing the age structure and education of Poles from the perspective of three consecutive decades, a growing labour supply deficit was found. It also points to a possible shortage of competencies needed to green the economy. It was emphasised that, in view of the low effectiveness of the state's prevention policy aimed at preventing the growing demographic crisis, it would be necessary to supplement the shortage of workers from external resources, that is, labour migration. However, this may also be difficult because the labour markets in other European countries become increasingly competitive. Recommended solutions to foster labour market sustainability for the green economy may be to delay the exit of employees from the labour market, boost female economic activity, and make the education system more efficient.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The intuitionistic fuzzy synthetic measure in a dynamic analysis of the subjective quality of life of citizens of European cities 2024-04-25T16:25:18+02:00 Marta Kusterka-Jefmańska Ewa Roszkowska Bartłomiej Jefmański <p>The paper aims to measure and assess changes regarding the SQoL experienced by the residents of selected European cities over time. An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Synthetic Measure (IFSM) was applied to measure the SQoL. The measure allows taking into account the element of uncertainty expressed in the lack or refusal to answer. The analysis uses the results of studies on the SQoL conducted by the European Commission in the selected European cities. The method of constructing a pattern object proposed in the article allowed for assessing changes in the SQoL level of European city residents over time. The analysis showed that the subjective quality of life of the residents of European cities is systematically increasing during the period 2006-2019. However, we still observe large differences in the level of this phenomenon among the cities. The results of the research can be used to formulate assumptions or modify urban policies in EU cities to improve the quality of life of citizens.</p> 2024-04-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The image of voivodeship cities among residents: exploring age-related perspectives 2024-04-26T16:25:28+02:00 Ewelina Tomaszewska Ewa Glińska <p>Purpose: Image is one of the key issues in city marketing and branding. City image studies are essential tools for urban planners, social researchers as well as political decision-makers and local authorities aiming to understand how people perceive the urban space in which they live. The objective of this article is to identify the image of voivodeship cities among their residents based on the respondents’ age categories.</p> <p>Methodology/approach: The article relies on the results of a quantitative study conducted with a sample of 728 respondents residing in selected voivodeship cities in Poland. The research tool employed in the study was a standardised survey questionnaire.</p> <p>Findings: The findings reveal a statistically significant difference in the assessment of the overall city image by residents across various age categories.</p> <p>Practical implications: This article may serve as an inspiration for city managers who, in shaping a positive image of urban centres, can communicate information about selected city attributes tailored to the chosen age category of inhabitants.</p> <p>Originality/value: The research results unequivocally confirm that older city dwellers appear to be more inclined to feel an emotional connection to their place of residence and express positive opinions about it.</p> 2024-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Optimization of consumer decisions and the impact of selected factors on purchasing behavior in polish e-commerce 2024-04-02T16:13:48+02:00 Daniel Tokarski Anita Fajczak-Kowalska <p>The article aims to present consumer behaviour in the process of purchasing goods and services in online stores in the Polish market. The impact of selected factors determining or discouraging online shopping, as well as influencing the choice of an online store by young consumers representing the "Z" generation, was examined. 100 respondents took part in the pilot study, and women constituted nearly 70% of the surveyed population. Depending on the needs of customers, various factors determine whether they will make purchases online or convince them to choose an online store. Additionally, through the prism of various concerns and their own experiences, they assess factors discouraging online shopping. The results of the analysis can be used in practice when planning an advertising campaign by introducing coordinated and organised activities using one or several different related media. The publication also discusses the impact of online advertising on consumer behaviour in e-commerce, combining an interdisciplinary approach in the areas of management and quality sciences with economics and finance. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2022.</p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> </span></p> 2024-04-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Consumers' motives for engaging in second-hand clothing circulation in terms of sustainable consumption 2024-03-22T16:06:23+01:00 Agnieszka Ciechelska Marta Kusterka-Jefmańska Sabina Zaremba-Warnke <p>An increase in the number of consumers engaging in second-hand clothing (in short, SHC) circulation is indicated as one of the main ways to balance the consumption of clothes. Therefore, the motives of consumers engaging in SHC circulation are an important issue that requires cyclical and in-depth research. This article aimed to examine consumers' motives for engaging in SHC circulation in the context of the implementation of sustainable clothing consumption in selected European countries. In order to accomplish the objective, 547 CAWI questionnaire interviews were conducted with consumers from five countries: Germany, Sweden, Slovenia, Lithuania and Poland. The main motives for engaging in SHC circulation indicated by respondents are directly - the ecological and altruistic motive - and indirectly - the economic motive - linked to the idea of sustainable consumption. At the same time, it should be noted that consumers are guided by several motives simultaneously, and despite pro-environmental declarations, in most cases, they are also guided by economic motives. The study results can be applied to improving waste management systems and, in particular, campaigns promoting SHC circulation.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The voice of society in designing public recreational spaces (PRS) in an urban environment 2024-05-15T16:30:27+02:00 Elzbieta Zysk Katarzyna Zalewska <p>Global urban population growth, climate change, and the energy crisis pose significant challenges for the local authorities and encourage a shift in local policy-making towards sustainable development. Local governments have to cater to public needs and expectations regarding recreational spaces and environmental protection by implementing innovative infrastructure solutions, including those based on renewable energy sources. In recent years, the debate on urban planning has centred on the placemaking approach and the implementation of the 15-minute city and smart city concepts. This novel approach promotes sustainable urban development that relies on the links between the natural environment, the economy, and society. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities of urban planning solutions and the components of urban infrastructure that contribute to sustainable urban development in the context of improving the quality of local life. Local community needs were identified in a questionnaire survey and during a field investigation. The study was conducted in a medium-sized Polish city where public recreational spaces were redesigned in line with the principles of sustainable urban development. The results were used to propose universal urban development projects that address local needs and rely on renewable energy sources to create a sustainable future for society, the natural environment, and the climate.</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Transaction costs of ineffective legal intervention restricting land ownership in the vicinity of airports: the example of the Polish compensation scheme in the context of environmental regulations 2024-04-18T16:21:53+02:00 Iwona Forys Michał Głuszak Magdalena Habdas Jan Konowalczuk <p>The goal of the paper is to assess the social implications of an ineffective legal intervention, which consists of introducing ownership restrictions concerning residential real estate located in the vicinity of airports. The paper evaluates Polish law in the context of the legislator's environmental aims and compares current regulations in Poland with solutions adopted in English law and American jurisdictions. The social and economic impact of ineffective legal intervention is calculated for the KTW airport case study with the use of information about the structure and value of filed and awarded claims for damages. With the use of this data, in the empirical part of the paper, we evaluate the factual transaction costs of public intervention for that airport, as well as ones which would occur if, instead of the Polish model, the American and the English models of compensation were applied. This allows us to explain the socio-economic consequences of adopting a given solution as well as to assess whether it fulfils desirable objectives. It also provides an opportunity to assess the models in the context of devising legally and economically justified compensation for landowners near airports affected by aircraft noise. The paper narrows the gap in the legal and economic knowledge related to the types and implications of ownership restrictions introduced in the vicinity of airports.</p> 2024-04-18T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Trends in the livestock and pork market in Poland with regard to the environmental impact of this production direction 2024-03-22T16:06:37+01:00 Anna Olszańska Anna Sylwia Kowalska Joanna Szymańska Klaudia Paskudzka Ivan Soukal <p>After joining the European Union, the market economy continued to drive structural changes in meat production and processing. Unfortunately, the functioning of meat markets was impacted by several threats with significant adverse influence. Phenomena such as the spread of ASF disease, the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union or the Covid-19 epidemic added instability to the already cyclical pork market. The study aims to evaluate the functioning of Poland’s pork market and to identify the main trend in this market. Livestock and pork meat production in Poland form a significant economic sector; however, it creates considerable environmental challenges. The study focuses on key aspects such as greenhouse gas emissions, water usage, feed consumption, and waste management. The study covers the years 2004-2021, i.e., the period of seventeen years after Poland's accession to the European Union. The statistical data analysis methods showed four to three-year cycles in pork live stock with a decreasing amplitude over time and high and relatively stable domestic demand for pork. This provides a favourable foundation for future production direction. However, the systematic changes in the structure of meat consumption and price development led to a steady increase in the share of poultry meat at the expense of pork and bovine during the observed year span.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Analysis of Ronald Coase's theorem from the perspective of natural resources management 2024-04-02T16:13:18+02:00 Jerzy Śleszyński <p>The aim of this article is to consider why the Coase theorem is used so rarely in the field of environmental protection policy and why possible proposals for the implementation of this solution are exposed to harsh criticism. Ronald Coase points out the significant problem of regulatory costs, and his proposal for negotiations may be a panacea for certain over-administration, excessive interventionism, regulatory rigidity or lack of trust in the market mechanism. However, according to the author of this paper, the implementation of the Coase theorem in the most typical and significant areas and problems of environmental policy is either not possible, will encounter enormous difficulties, or is questionable from the point of view of natural resources and social welfare. The reasons for the limitations will be discussed, including undefined or imprecisely defined ownership rights to many environmental resources, the non-market nature of many environmental goods depriving them of a market price, and above all, the chronic asymmetry of the parties that would negotiate with each other on an equal basis.</p> 2024-04-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The effect of natural resources and foreign direct investment on economic growth 2024-03-28T16:08:45+01:00 Fouad Mahfoudi Siham Riache Bilal Louail <p>The proposed research aims to examine The Impact of Natural Resources and Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Algeria during the period 1970-2021 and compare it with the Saudi economy, which is considered the closest economy in terms of natural resources. Analyse the factors influencing economic diversification and innovation. The research seeks to understand the impact of natural resources, including oil and gas, on the Algerian economy and study the factors influencing sustainable development and economic diversification. This research employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. The findings suggest that, in total, there is The Impact of Natural Resources and Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Algeria during the period 1970-2021. The positive correlation between resources and economic growth highlights resource extraction's role in Algeria's economic development. It underscores the need for diversification to reduce dependence on commodity markets. The research focuses solely on economic factors, neglecting social and political dynamics. Limited data availability may constrain the depth of analysis, potentially overlooking nuances in the relationship between natural resources, FDI, and economic growth. The findings offer insights for Algerian policymakers to develop strategies for sustainable economic growth, emphasising the need for diversification beyond natural resources. Recommendations may inform policy decisions aimed at fostering innovation, reducing dependency on volatile resource sectors, and promoting environmental sustainability.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Industry sector’s influence on the narratives in environmental disclosures in the opinion of reports preparers. Evidence from Poland 2024-05-13T16:29:45+02:00 Melania Bąk Marzena Strojek-Filus Andrzej Bąk <p>The narrative phenomenon in accounting concerns, i.e., the disclosure of environmental information and the impression management of stakeholders. The study examines and assesses the dependence between the company’s industry of activity and the narration perception adopted by the preparers of environmental reports, in particular, the impression management techniques used. To achieve the purpose of the article, an in-depth survey was conducted covering a non-random sample of the employees of Polish enterprises involved in the preparation and reporting of environmental information. Contingency tables and association measures for categorical variables were used in the statistical analysis of the survey data. The analysis results of the collected empirical data confirmed that the company’s industry of activity impacts the way report preparers evaluate the scope and apply narrative strategies, especially impression management techniques. The research expands knowledge on the perception of the importance of environmental disclosures and the issue of environmental narrative practices from an enterprise perspective. The results of the analysis indicated a level of pro-environmental awareness and confirmed the knowledge of narrative strategies and techniques. This study contributes to the discussion on the effects of environmental narrative in accounting, offering yet another element of the current practice diagnosis in this area in Poland.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Exposure to the ESG risk of the Polish banking sector 2024-03-22T16:05:57+01:00 Irena Pyka Aleksandra Nocoń <p>The main aim of the article is to explore changes taking place in ESG risk management in the Polish banking sector. The following research methods were used: in-depth literature studies, desk research methods, questionnaire survey methods, case study analyses, and observation and synthesis methods. The article verified the adopted research hypothesis, stating that knowledge and awareness of the importance of ESG risk in commercial banks in Poland increased, which is reflected in practical activities related to their bank risk management systems. The research that was conducted showed that Polish banks are increasingly aware of the ESG risk and the need for their inclusion in risk management processes. This inclusion takes place through various channels. However, an important aspect of this system is the assessment of banks' exposure to ESG risk. Commercial banks in Poland use mainly qualitative methods, although they also recognise quantitative ones to measure the scale of ESG risk taken.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Environmental disclosures according to ESRS in ESG reporting of selected banks in Poland 2024-04-02T16:14:01+02:00 Elżbieta Broniewicz Ewa Jastrzębska Agata Lulewicz-Sas <p>The aim of this article is to analyze the environmental disclosures of non-financial information presented in the selected Polish banks in terms of meeting the European Sustainability Reporting Standards (ESRS) guidelines. The ESRS reporting standards, adopted by the European Commission in July 2023, not only introduced an increase in the scope of reporting but also clearly defined the information to be disclosed in reports that banks are obligated to submit. The research method used was a critical analysis of the subject-matter literature, and, in the empirical part, a method of analyzing information posted on bank websites was assumed. Among the analyzed entities, 23 banks operating in Poland, functioning in the form of joint-stock companies, were taken into consideration. Research has shown that the required data is contained in various documents published by banks, and their availability on websites is relatively low. The scope of environmental disclosures was assessed as insufficient in relation to the ESRS guidelines. The highest number of disclosures occurred in the “Climate” area and the lowest in the “Biodiversity and Ecosystems” area, which may stem from the specificity of the banks' activities. The conducted research revealed that banks were inadequately prepared for reporting that takes into account ESRS guidelines.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Environmental responsibility of banks versus their financial efficiency. Evidence from the Warsaw Stock Exchange 2024-04-21T11:07:44+02:00 Justyna Zabawa Ewa Łosiewicz-Dniestrzańska <p>The significance of our research is connected with the many regulations in the European Union concerning ESG issues. These documents are very often related to environmental aspects and concern banks as public trust entities. We focus on banks on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), which constitute the main part of the Polish banking sector. We examine the relationship between financial efficiency and environmental responsibility in the banking sector. We identified three objectives for our research: first: to assess financial efficiency in the banks under study, second: to assess eco-management in banks listed on the WSE, third: to investigate whether there is a relationship between environmental responsibility as an ESG element of banks and their financial efficiency. The above objectives correspond with the research hypothesis adopted: Among the banks analysed, there is a correlation between a bank's financial performance and the Bank Ecologisation Index (BEI-2). This study refers to the period 2019-2021 to show the influence of the Covid-19 pandemic. We adopt various research methods to measure the environmental responsibility of banks and to examine the relationship between ecological engagement and banks’ financial ratios. In our research, we use descriptive statistics, linear ordering methods, standardised sum methods, synthetic measures of development, box plots, and analysis of the financial and non-financial reports of the entities analysed. The paper consists of five parts: introduction, literature review and research goals, materials and methods, results and discussion, and conclusions. Our results show that among the banks analysed, there is no statistically significant correlation between financial results and the Bank Ecologisation Index (BEI-2). This may be due to the fact that, as a result of the economic instability caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, banks in Poland have slowed down their growth potential and investments in greening have shifted to the longer-term perspective.</p> 2024-04-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment EU regulations on reporting sustainable development as a determinant of limiting the environmental pressure of chemical enterprises in Poland 2024-05-01T16:27:24+02:00 Barbara Kryk Małgorzata Kożuch <p>The period of validity of Directive 2014/95/EU, which imposed on enterprises the obligation to present non-financial information in separate non-financial reports, the so-called ESG was aimed to check its effects, complementary regulations and actual actions in the environmental area. Numerous works have analysed various aspects of non-financial reporting in the context of the directive, including several on ESG reporting in relation to air pollution emissions. However, it has not been examined yet whether there is a relationship between the level of reporting and the effects of pro-environmental activities in the context of the impact of regulations on it. A research gap in this area was identified, and therefore, the aim of the paper is to examine how selected chemical companies in Poland adapt to the EU guidelines on ESG reporting in the environmental dimension and whether it has an impact on reducing their pressure on the environment. The research period is 2010-2022, and the three-stage study used a quantitative-qualitative methodological approach. In the first and third stages, descriptive statistics and time series analysis methods were used. The second one includes methods such as content analysis, case analysis, GES Risk Rating, and expert analysis. The research carried out made it possible to conclude on the impact of non-financial reporting regulations on the environmental pressure.</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Sustainable future of construction: the potential of concrete with basalt mini-bars as reinforcement 2024-05-16T16:31:24+02:00 Julita Krassowska Marta Kosior-Kazberuk Marta Słowik Amanda Akram <p>The paper concerns the influence of basalt minibars on the subcritical and critical behaviour of test specimens made of concrete with low-emission cement. Low-emission cement produces lower emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants than traditional cement. Analyses were conducted on changes in fracture mechanics parameters depending on the content of microfibers in the concrete mix (0, 2, 4, 8 kg/m³), the type of cement used, and the water-to-cement ratio (<em>w/c</em>). It was demonstrated that concrete reinforced with basalt microfibers exhibits increased resistance to crack initiation and propagation. An increase in the stress intensity factor was observed for CEMI 42.5R concretes at <em>w/c</em>=0.5 by 27%, at <em>w/c</em> =0.4 by 62%, and for CEM II 42.5R/A-V concretes at <em>w/c</em>=0.5 by 29%, and at <em>w/c</em>=0.4 by as much as 30%. It was shown that the addition of microfibers to concrete made with low-emission cement significantly increases the mechanical parameters of this material.</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Economic and environmental analyses of the construction of on-site, large-scale photovoltaic farms 2024-03-22T16:07:31+01:00 Bartosz Zegardlo Natalia Pogonowska Antoni Bombik <p>This paper addresses the construction of large-scale photovoltaic farms. The paper describes the issues of the current overconsumption of energy from traditional sources and the associated overuse of fossil fuels. Alternatives to these processes are presented based on literature sources, and the use of renewable energy sources, focusing on solar energy, is recommended here. In the research section, attention was focused on the economic and environmental aspects of ventures involving the construction of large-scale farms by manufacturing companies with high monthly energy consumption. In the first stage of the work, economic analyses were carried out based on data obtained from photovoltaic installation companies. For the simulation, an assessment of the costs and benefits of building a photovoltaic farm for a steel construction company located in eastern Poland was used. Another element of the research part of the study was an analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey, which was conducted among people living in the vicinity of such farms. On this basis, the environmental impact of neighbouring areas of this type of investment was estimated. Positive conclusions from the analyses made it possible to recommend the construction of this type of facility, especially for manufacturing plants with high electricity consumption.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Determinants of electromobility development from the perspective of a zero emission, innovative and resilient economy 2024-04-02T16:13:33+02:00 Urszula Motowidlak Agnieszka Bukowska-Piestrzyńska <p>The aim of this article is to identify the critical factors and assess the specific actions conditioning the development of electromobility from the perspective of a zero-carbon, innovative and resilient economy. These issues have a particular dimension in relation to individual mobility. The study used a combination of primary and secondary data, using various research methods and techniques, such as descriptive analysis, desk research, diagnostic survey, cause-and-effect analysis and statistical analysis. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in managerial positions. The literature review and the results of our own research confirmed the importance of the identified factors in the uptake of electric cars. At the same time, the study highlighted the high complexity of problems regarding investment decisions determining the development of electromobility. Taking active steps to increase the level of sustainability and resilience of the electromobility system should first focus on further development of charging infrastructure, uptake of electric vehicles, development of renewable energy sources and creation of an electric vehicle battery value chain. The main expectations for the development of electromobility are to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, reduce dependence on fossil fuel supplies, increase the competitiveness and innovation of the economy and reduce external costs generated by transport. Attempts were made to achieve the originality of the research carried out through its measurable nature. The proposed electromobility development model may contribute to the improvement of decision-making tools regarding the allocation of public funds and other sources for investments so that they contribute to the sustainable development of mobility systems.</p> 2024-04-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Social participation and logistical elements of cemetery waste biofraction management 2024-05-14T16:29:48+02:00 Joanna Kostecka Sławomir Progorowicz Anna Mazur-Pączka Grzegorz Pączka Renata Szura Aleksander Kiryluk Kevin R. Butt Mariola Garczyńska <p>In the 21st century, waste is a growing problem and must be considered one of the essential elements of creating conditions for sustainable development. The article pays special attention to the biofraction of cemetery waste, and interviews with cemetery visitors made a possible determination of its place among other wastes produced in the cemetery. The willingness of cemetery visitors to participate in the logistics of the cemetery waste management system was also tested. The article also presents selected elements of cemetery waste management logistics. The system should consist of several subsystems. Subsystems of waste minimisation "at the source" and waste segregation, disposal, and secondary management were considered crucial. In addition to the logistics mentioned above, subsystems were proposed to include innovation in cemeteries, the biotechnology of composting/vermicomposting of the biofraction, and segregation on-site by those cleaning their graves. The cemetery biofraction represents a waste suitable for on-site management, increasing the potential for environmental, social, and economic savings. The issues under consideration are part of the problem of integrating the cemetery biofraction into the green recycling system in force in Europe. Logistics for management of other cemetery wastes (plastic, metal, glass, and paper), which require subsystems involving their long-distance transportation, should be limited at the level of purchase by cemetery users. From civic participation in the control of logistical improvements, the entire cemetery waste management system will gradually evolve.</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Evaluation of the effect of using sewage sludge as a fertilizer on the concentration of heavy metals in soil and the economic implications of its application 2024-04-16T16:21:20+02:00 Agnieszka Petryk Marek Ryczek Sylwia Guzdek <p>The costs of fertilising the soil with sewage sludge were reduced to the operating time of the equipment and the working time of the labourers operating the equipment in the two main operations (manure spreading and ploughing), for three sewage sludge application doses, namely 50, 100 and 200 Mg·ha<sup>-1</sup>. The costs were calculated using the Katalog Nakładów Rzeczowych nr 2-21: Tereny zielone/Ministerstwo Gospodarki Przestrzennej i Budownictwa (2009) and the current prices from Sekocendbud (2023). The effectiveness of fertilisation was assessed by studying the level and change in heavy metal content after the soil was fertilised with sewage sludge at three proportional doses, namely 50, 100 and 200 Mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>. The sewage sludge used for fertilisation complied with the sanitary requirements for sludge to be utilised for natural purposes (Regulation, 2015). The estimated total cost of sludge application ranged from PLN 12646.19 to PLN 20456.73 per 1 ha for doses from 50 to 200 Mg per 1 ha. The results of the estimation confirmed the hypothesis that the unit cost of fertilisation with stabilised sewage sludge increases with the dose of sludge in relation to the area of fertilised soil and decreases with the increase of the mass of sludge deposited in the soil. Optimising fertiliser costs, therefore, requires selection - increasing the sludge dose per unit area. No contamination of the soil with copper, cadmium, lead and zinc was found despite an obvious increase in the content of these metals when mixed into the soil. The application of sewage sludge, even in multiple doses, did not result in exceeding the permissible limit for the content of these elements in the soil, as defined in the Minister of the Environment Regulation of 2015 (Regulation, 2015).</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Evaluating the landfill leachate quality using leachate pollution index (LPI) and technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) 2024-03-22T16:06:11+01:00 Izabela Anna Tałałaj Sławomira Hajduk <p>Variability and diversity of landfill leachate cause difficulties in assessing the actual degree of threat to the environment and selecting an appropriate method of disposal or treatment. Therefore, quantifying leachate contamination potential is essential in landfill management and could be used to assess the accuracy of landfill operation and its impact on surrounding areas. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the performance of the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method and its suitability in determining leachate pollution potential in comparison to the Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) method. For this purpose, the quality of leachate from the landfill, collected four times a year from 2004 to 2021, was analysed. The following parameters were monitored: pH, EC, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Hg. On the basis of the measured parameters, the LPI and TOPSIS indexes were calculated. The obtained results indicated that the TOPSIS method is more sensitive and accurate in observing changes in leachate quality. It can be applied to any number of contaminant parameters without restrictions on scope, quantity, or their relative importance. It can also be used to compare the variations in leachate quality over time or to analyse differences in leachate quality among various landfill sites.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The importance of eco-innovative weed control using laser technology in creating sustainable agriculture in the European Union. Socio-economic perspective 2024-05-14T16:30:04+02:00 Elżbieta Lorek Agnieszka Lorek Beata Michaliszyn-Gabryś <p>The article aims to evaluate – from the point of view of selected socio-economic aspects – the implementation of an innovative weed control technology into agricultural practice using laser energy targeted at reducing pesticide use. The achievement of the stated objective required an analysis of the research output concerning the problem of pesticide sustainability in European Union agriculture and an analysis of EU policies in this field. The paper also utilises data obtained through research by conducting in-depth interviews with representatives of three stakeholder groups: farmers, society and business. The subject of the interviews was to assess the impact of large-scale dissemination of an innovative weed control technology on selected socio-economic aspects. The article is one of the first studies to assess the social impact of innovative technologies using artificial intelligence and laser technology for weed control in agriculture. The implementation of this technology can have a significant impact on running farms in a more sustainable way, but a prerequisite for its successful use is the inclusion of social and economic considerations.</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The supply-side of the organic food market in the light of relations between farmers and distributors 2024-04-27T16:25:44+02:00 Karol Kociszewski Joanna Krupowicz Andrzej Graczyk Magdalena Sobocińska Krystyna Mazurek-Łopacińska <p>Organic farming is one of the main directions of the EU’s farm-to-fork strategy in connection with the European Green Deal. In Poland, organic farming developed dynamically from the accession to the European Union until 2013 and then slowed down. This is a good reason to investigate the conditions affecting the supply side of organic food, especially that the distribution system hardly absorbs the production potential of Polish organic farming. There are few studies with in-depth analysis of relationships between farms and distributors. The research objectives adopted in this paper are the assessment of the intensity of the relations between farmers and organic food distributors. The analysis is based on desk research and the results of a survey of 120 owners of certified organic farms and 120 representatives of shops offering organic products. The results of the analysis show that there are many shops that are supplied by farmers (with a high intensity of relations with farmers) and, at the same time, few farmers selling their products to shops (with a low intensity of relations). Along with the low intensity of farmers’ relations with food processors, this is one of the main barriers to supply development.</p> 2024-04-27T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Broiler production from the perspective of emergy analysis - environmental impact scenarios 2024-03-29T16:09:29+01:00 ANNA KUCZUK JANUSZ POSPOLITA <p>Poultry meat consumption is a significant element in Poland's overall food consumption. Economic considerations mean that both nationally and globally, conventional intensive rearing dominates. Nevertheless, environmental and health aspects or the will to treat animals humanely make pro-environmental rearing systems increasingly common. The purpose of this article is an environmental analysis of an example farm engaged in intensive rearing of slaughtered poultry (so-called baseline production). For the analysed production, the following scenarios of changes were proposed: (a) conventional rearing based on the use of own fodder, and (b) organic rearing using free range and own organic fodder. An emergy approach was applied in this analysis. Comparison of different production systems using emergy analysis made it possible to show the scale of environmental resource commitment for baseline and scenario-based productions, and to determine the amount of renewable and non-renewable emergy consumed per unit of production. Through the use of selected emergy indicators, e.g.: Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), the environmental impact for each case was determined. For the ecological system scenario, the need to change production parameters (stocking rate, maximum poultry house area, free range) was taken into account. The results of the emergy-based indicators showed that the baseline production places the greatest burden on the environment and is the least sustainable. The organic system is the opposite; however, due to production limitations and the lower production efficiency achieved, it may not be economically viable to orient a farm exclusively to the organic system. In an environmental assessment, the information obtained can provide valuable guidance to agricultural producers. They can help make informed decisions on natural resource management to achieve environmental security. The results are also important for political decision-makers in creating policies for more sustainable agricultural production. The results obtained are discussed, pointing out the importance of the analysis used mainly from an environmental point of view.</p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Development of the tourism function of rural areas of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship in 2010 and 2020 2024-03-22T16:07:18+01:00 Zbigniew Brodziński Konrad Turkowski <p>Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship is a characteristic region of Poland due to its natural conditions, which means that the economy is primarily agricultural and touristic. One of the main, innovative directions of non-agricultural activities supported in the rural areas of the region is rural tourism together, implemented as part of the smart specialisation "Water economy". Analysis of 19 selected indicators of tourism, tourism development and potential, as well as technical infrastructure and finances of communes, showed that in 2010 of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship, the level of development of the tourism function of the rural areas was characterised by an average value of the synthetic Hellwig measure (0.13) and showed strong spatial heterogeneity. In 2020, under conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic, this measure decreased only slightly to a value of 0.11, primarily due to the continuation of the region's tourism development planned for the long term. The spatial arrangement of the development of the tourism function in the analysed years remained virtually unchanged. The highest values for the development of the tourism function, both in 2010 and in 2020, were recorded in municipalities located in the area of the Great Mazurian Lakes, Powiśle and the other lake districts of the region.</p> 2024-03-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment The role of the river in the development of the city on the example of the Odra and the city of Głogów 2024-04-29T16:27:01+02:00 Agnieszka Becla Małgorzata Rutkowska <p>The authors analysed the role of the river in the city's development using the case study method. The subject of the research was the city of Głogów, situated on the Odra River. The research focused on the city-forming functions of rivers in the light of historical and contemporary analyses. The leading city-forming planes of the Odra River for Głogów and its role in the local economy were identified. The potential of the Odra River for the balanced and sustainable development of the city of Głogów and the conditions for its use have also been indicated. Rivers will play, as they have historically, a significant role in the future development of cities, which implies the need to change strategies for the development of urbanised riverine areas. This is because they are an opportunity for the sustainability of this development, and they are not sufficiently taken into account in these strategies.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Reasons for stagnation in river transport in Poland at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries 2024-05-16T16:31:40+02:00 Stanisław Czaja Jerzy Tutaj <p>The aim of the study was to identify the causes of the progressive stagnation in Polish river shipping (Polish inland navigation) since the middle of the 20th century. The methodology used, due to the type of research, was of a complex, eclectic nature. It was based on the analysis of empirical data, desktop research studies, a systemic analysis of relations and cause-and-effect relationships in the sphere of river transportation, and a critical interpretation of the goals contained in program documents on the development of river shipping. The studies focused on the macroeconomic level. The results obtained not only identified the causes of stagnation, but also indicated the most urgent directions for research in this area. Their implementation may allow to design such a strategy for the development of river shipping in Poland, thanks to which it will become an important part of the economy and sustainable transport. The research is original and unknown in this form in the Polish literature.</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Concept of pocket gardens on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology as a result of a survey of the academic community 2024-03-22T16:05:30+01:00 Dorota Gawryluk Izabela Biała Magda Gawrychowska <p>Green areas of university campuses are an important resource for them, performing a variety of functions important for the functioning of the university, the well-being of the academic community, the environment and the green system of the city. The purpose of this study was to determine the preferences of the academic community, with particular emphasis on students, as to the functionality that campus green spaces should fulfil today. The methodology of the research work included a diagnostic survey method, the technique of which was surveying, and the tool was a survey questionnaire. Analysis of the results of a survey conducted among students at the Bialystok University of Technology (Bialystok, Poland) made it possible to determine the needs and expectations regarding the development of campus green areas. The concept of pocket gardens accommodates responses and solutions to students' expectations. The analysis of the student community's opinions served to implement the tasks of the "My Green Polytechnic" strategy conducted on the Bialystok University of Technology campus. The results of the survey and the experience of its implementation can be useful to various institutions in making decisions on green space management.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment