Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Ekonomia i Srodowisko - Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" ("Ekonomia i Środowisko") is a leading Polish quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p> </p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="http://psesizn.pl/">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance, social and economic geography and<br />spatial management, management and quality studies</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Wydawnictwo Ekonomia i Środowisko en-US Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment 0867-8898 <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license sa"> <p><strong>ShareAlike</strong> — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the <a id="same_license_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">same license</a> as the original.<span id="sa-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-offset-1 col-md-10"><hr /></div> </div> <div id="deed-understanding" class="row"> <h3>Notices:</h3> <ul class="understanding license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license">You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable <a id="exception_or_limitation_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">exception or limitation</a>.</li> <li class="license">No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</li> </ul> </div> Summaries in Polish https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/433 <p>Summaries in Polish</p> Economics and Environment Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 79 4 205 216 MUNICIPAL WASTE AS A COMMON GOOD IN NATIONAL MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/411 <p>Today, waste is a source of raw material and energy that can be recovered. Economic value of waste results in the formation of informal groups of pickers appropriating material waste in developing countries. These types of situations are analysing in the literature. Using Ostrom's SES analytical framework, the authors show that municipal waste in developing countries can be treated as a common good (CPR). The aim of this paper is to answer the question: whether municipal waste in developed countries, can be treated this way, although here the activities of informal collectors are marginal. The analysis also uses the analytical scheme of Ostrom’s SES. However, due to the different organization of the waste management system in developed countries, the individual elements of the scheme were defined differently than in the literature. This resulted in a different schema of municipal waste as a common good. This approach allows the schema to be applied both locally and more broadly and to all types of municipal waste, not just material waste.</p> Agnieszka Ciechelska Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 8 22 10.34659/2021/3/24 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF INVESTMENT AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE LAND MANAGEMENT https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/407 <p>The purpose of the study is to form a methodology for strategic management of investment and innovation activities in environmentally safe nature management based on the analysis of world experience. The study's methodological approach is based on the step-by-step SMART-research, <br />economical-ecological analysis, systematic investment and innovation activities assessment, PESTLE-, SWOT-analyzes, and definition of ecologically safe strategies. The proposed study formulates the author's vision of combining methods of foresight methodology in the field of environmentally safe land management, SMART-method and Quintuple Helix (5 helix) for sustainable development of methodology for strategic management of investment and innovation activities in the field of environmentally safe land management. Furthermore, the proposed methodological approach will promote the development of applied tooling to develop systems of strategic management of investment and innovation activities of environmentally safe land management.<br />In contrast to the existing methodological approaches in land relations, the developed methodology of strategic management of investment and innovation activities in ecologically safe land management is based on a comprehensive combination and use of foresight tooling.</p> Анна Тютюнник Borys Burkynskyi Natalya Andryeyeva Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 24 57 10.34659/2021/4/25 Location determinants city logistics centers in the concept of sustainable development https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/423 <p>The decision-making processes for planning an environmentally compatible infrastructure are extremely complex, as are the logistics processes themselves. The concepts for the location of urban logistics centers have been compared with the ecological danger zones in Poland. In this way, areas with a high degree of environmental degradation, particularly unfavorable from the point of view of the location of new logistics centers, were identified. The decision on the location of the planned project should be made on the basis of a previously developed, special procedure for the assessment of investment implementation and its impact on the natural environment. The aim of the study is to indicate the infrastructure of city logistics centers as one of the necessary and most effective factors determining sustainable development. As a rule, infrastructure can be created in two ways. The first one recommends building the enterprise, and then its infrastructure, while the second one recommends the opposite approach. From the point of view of the infrastructure of sustainable development, the second approach seems appropriate, allowing for the effective implementation of the sustainable development strategy. The first approach may only lead to a decline in the meaning of the concept of sustainable development in the mentality and social awareness. The variety of approaches in the literature on the subject defining the concept of sustainable development infrastructure covers both the area of ​​economy, society and the environment. Significant from the point of view of future generations seems to be the environmental aspect related to the creation of urban logistics centers in the era of sustainable development. One of the essential properties of the natural environment is equilibrium, which occurs when the outflow and supply of energy and matter in nature are balanced. The natural environment is in constant interaction with humans, in order to prevent its gradation, measures are taken to prevent damage to the physical environment or natural resources, there are also activities aimed at reducing the risk of losses or encouraging the efficient use of natural resources, including measures to save energy and use renewable energy sources.</p> Daniel Tokarski Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 58 69 10.34659/2021/4/27 ECO-INNOVATION MEASURING IN EUROPEAN AND ASIAN COUNTRIES https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/399 <p>The development of eco-innovation is driven by globalisation processes, technological progress and climate change. It is also directly related to the pursuit of sustainable development, as well as to the reduction of negative impacts on the environment and the efficient use of natural resources. Monitoring progress towards sustainable development requires the systematic measurement of eco-innovation. An important theoretical and practical challenge is to develop methods and indicators to measure eco-innovation. Currently, there are different systems for measuring eco-innovation, which makes international comparative analysis difficult. The purpose of this article is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of measuring eco-innovation in selected European and Asian countries. The study uses a critical literature review as well as a comparative analysis and synthesis method based on the ASEM Eco-Innovation Index. The study provides evidence that there are a number of differences in eco-innovation between European and Asian countries. Measuring eco-innovation is particularly important in planning and implementing instruments to stimulate environmental innovation across countries.</p> Maria Urbaniec Justyna Tomala Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 70 86 10.34659/2021/4/28 WORN VEHICLE TYRES IN POLISH ROAD CONSTRUCTION – ECOLOGY, LAW, USE, AND ECONOMICS https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/428 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> The recycling of worn tyres is enforced primarily by legal regulations, but it is also motivated by ecological and economic reasons. In Poland, recovery of rubber materials makes it possible to obtain materials of good quality and very broad applications, e.g. for plastic road surface or production of so-called rubber asphalt, used for the grindable layer of roads, as well as for innovative materials intended for filling bridge abutments of integrated bridges. The paper considers the financial aspect of using disintegrated rubber waste by analysing the cost of replacing the binder with different amounts of rubber dust (10%, 12%, 14%, 16%). With the assumptions made, the analysis allows for concluding that with an increase in the content of the rubber additive, the cost of the binder changes.</span></span></p> Ewa Ołdakowska Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 87 96 10.34659/2021/4/29 THE LEVEL OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IMPLEMENTATION IN TERMS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN POLISH VOIVODSHIPS ACCORDING TO A MULTIVARIATE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/426 <p>In practice, reverse logistics in Poland refers to a narrow approach within the framework of the waste management problem. The voivodships have been obliged to implement reverse logistics processes more effectively through waste management. The article aims to diagnose the implementation level of waste management processes (part of reverse logistics) in Polish voivodships. The research used a multivariate comparative analysis that ranks voivodships according to waste management indicators. The research will result in preparing the ranking of voivodships listing the leaders and those unsuccessful in the implementation of waste management. Based on the research, Śląskie and Podlaskie voivodships were selected as the ones presenting the highest level of waste management implementation, whereas the lowest level was recorded for Lubuskie voivodship.</p> Anetta Zielińska Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 98 111 10.34659/2021/4/30 USE OF ECOLOGICAL LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/424 <p>The article discusses the possibility of utilization of both waste from CHP plants (Combined heat and power plants), i.e. fly ash, and PET plastic waste (polyethylene terephthalate), through processing into lightweight aggregate used to construct reinforced concrete beam elements to protect the natural environment. Properties of the utilized lightweight artificial aggregates are presented. Selected results of experimental tests in the area of load-bearing capacity and deformability of reinforced concrete beams made in the model scale are presented. An analysis of tests showed that beam elements made with artificial aggregate, despite its lower resistance to crushing, do not differ in terms of their load-bearing capacity compared to reinforced concrete beams made with recycled aggregate, with better flexural strength properties in certain cases.</p> Jolanta Anna Prusiel Robert Grygo Kevin Bujnarowski Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 112 132 10.34659/2021/4/31 AGRICULTURE AND SCIENCE COLLABORATION: THE CASE OF ŁÓDŹ VOIVODESHIP (POLAND) https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/400 <p>The article aims to evaluate the cooperation of Polish farmers from Łódź Voivodeship with science and other farmers in the field of implementing innovation in farms. Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) method was used. The analysis covers 150 Polish farms located in the Łódź Voivodeship. The farms for the study were selected from the Polish FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network) sample. The study was made in 2018. The conducted research has proved that interest in scientific achievements depends on the innovativeness of farms. The cooperation between Polish farmers from Łódź Voivodeship in the field of innovation activity do not differ in terms of their farming type. A consequence of the selection of farms is the lack of the ability to generalize the results to the entire population of farms in the Łódź Voivodeship. The added value of the analysis is the presentation of the results in terms of farm innovation.</p> Marta Baraniak Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 133 148 10.34659/2021/4/32 The reasons for choosing a leisure destination in the rural areas of the Bug river valley as per tourists` opinion https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/409 <p>The aim of the study was to identify factors that may determine the choice of leisure destination as a form of tourism in the rural areas of the Bug River Valley. The analysis of these factors also considered the nationality of the people surveyed. A total of 148 people took part in the study: 73 of Polish nationality (45 women and 18 men) and 75 foreigners, mainly Belarusians (51 women and 24 men). It was found that Polish tourists most often chose to spend leisure time in guesthouses/hotels or the houses of friends and family, while international tourists rest mainly in the houses of friends and family. Regardless of their nationality, the majority of tourists were satisfied with their stay in selected facilities, highly rating the communication, accommodation, catering and cycling routes and trails. The factors determining the choice of their place of stay, irrespective of nationality, were peace and quiet, attractive surroundings and convenient location. Respondents rested most frequently with family or friends. Polish tourists preferably used catering from the owners of holiday facilities, while foreigners cooked their own meals.</p> Dominik Dąbrowski Mikołaj Jalinik Janusz Leszek Sokół Katarzyna Radwańska Janusz Szwedo Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 149 161 10.34659/2021/4/33 Assessment of Tourist Traffic in Tatra National Park in 2018-2020 https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/402 <p>The aim of the article is to analyse the qualitative and quantitative research conducted between 2018 and 2020 in the field of tourist traffic in the Tatra National Park. The data presented in the article focuses on the situation of limitations to spatial mobility. To show the impact of changes in terms of implementation and meeting the needs of tourist trips, the period leading up to the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic was thoroughly studied, with a period marked by severe mobility restrictions. The obtained data made it possible to present the relationship between the restrictions and satisfying mentioned needs, which is visible in the example of the number of tourists visiting the Tatra National Park in the sections of 2020, which were characterised by a different scope of restrictions on social mobility. </p> Krzysztof Borkowski Elżbieta Chowaniec Marek Durmała Marcin Kubasiak Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 164 182 10.34659/2021/4/34 Organization of nature protection system and the quality of management in national parks - contribution to the discussion https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/403 <p>The aim of the article is to compare the legal and administrative foundations of the functioning of national parks as factors determining the quality of management. National parks in Poland and Ukraine, representing different nature protection systems, were selected for the comparative analysis and evaluation. The data was obtained from published sources. The most important were legislations that create the legal basis of the nature protection systems in both countries. The available data were used for analysis using the Desk Research method. There are numerous differences between the Polish and Ukrainian systems of protected areas, mostly based upon the position in the government structure (what is the way of creating the national park and which ministry is responsible for it). Despite those differences, general conclusions can be drawn. Due to the separate legal entity of individual units, as well as subordination to various ministries, there is no clear link between the institutions. This hinders the flow of information and reporting and complicates the decision-making process both at individual units and between national parks.</p> Tomasz Pasierbek Lyubomir Bezruchko Rakos Juraj Yuriy Zhuk Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 79 4 183 203 10.34659/2021/4/35 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF PIG MEAT PRODUCTS AND IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES. CASE STUDY FROM SPAIN https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/408 <p class="NormalnyGLOWNE" style="text-indent: 1.0cm; line-height: normal; tab-stops: 35.4pt;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;" lang="EN-GB">The aim of the publication is to assess environmental performance of meat product and to point out the possibilities of improving the product quality in terms of its environmental impact. <a name="_Hlk85019397"></a>The research was performed within the CIRC4Life project on the example of ALIA company, Spain. Life Cycle Assessment method and literature study were used for this purpose. The LCA was carried out for subsystems: feed production, pig housing, slaughtering, meat processing. Two scenarios: basic and improved were compared using the ReCiPe method. In the basic scenario the highest impacts are attributed to agricultural land occupation 29%, climate change 34%, natural land transformation 11% and fossil depletion-11%. The animal feed production is the most critical phase. Comparative analysis of the scenarios showed that there is a potential for beneficial trade-offs between different impact categories by changing the processes and materials for feed production.</span></p> Janusz Krupanek Beata Michaliszyn-Gabryś Manuel Moreno Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 79 4 10.34659/https://doi.org/10.34659/2021/4/36