Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Ekonomia i Srodowisko - Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" ("Ekonomia i Środowisko") is a leading Polish quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p> </p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="http://psesizn.pl/">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance, social and economic geography and<br />spatial management, management and quality studies</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Wydawnictwo Ekonomia i Środowisko en-US Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment 0867-8898 <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license sa"> <p><strong>ShareAlike</strong> — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the <a id="same_license_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">same license</a> as the original.<span id="sa-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-offset-1 col-md-10"><hr /></div> </div> <div id="deed-understanding" class="row"> <h3>Notices:</h3> <ul class="understanding license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license">You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable <a id="exception_or_limitation_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">exception or limitation</a>.</li> <li class="license">No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</li> </ul> </div> What’s the future of the agrarian question? Is its universalism being consolidated and the field of reception widened today? https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/518 Anna Matuszczak Andrzej Czyżewski Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 362 379 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.518 Barriers to achieving climate goals. An external context https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/476 <p>Achieving climate goals is becoming one of the most important challenges facing humankind as climate change and its consequences are increasingly evident, better documented, and disclosed in reports, successive international agreements, and at periodically held climate summits. There are two reasons behind this article: <em>firstly</em>, the increasingly frequent demands regarding the necessity to disclose not only the main climate goals but also intermediate climate targets; and, <em>secondly</em>, conclusions from the analysis of environmental goals within the framework of environmental management systems presented in our previous publications. There are certainly many factors influencing the achievement of climate goals, but the strength of their impact on the implementation of these goals varies greatly for a number of reasons. This review attempts to identify the main barriers to achieving the climate goals, especially those in organizational surroundings, without resorting to complex goal setting in applied concepts or management systems. The article focuses on the lack of a unified policy for achieving intermediate climate targets and, consequently, the main goals; importance of public awareness of risks; dominance of the short-term perspective, consequences of the absence of uniform legislation and single markets, significance of climate inequalities and climate injustice, and relevant resource and political constraints.</p> Tadeusz Borys Marek Bugdol Daniel Puciato Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 8 37 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.476 Paths of implementation of balanced and sustainable development in the conditions of the information society, knowledge-based economy and economy based on wisdom https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/487 <p> The study presents the need to implement balanced and sustainable development in the conditions of the information society, knowledge-based economy or wisdom-based economy as a synthesis of three leading paths – knowledge, wisdom, as well as balance and sustainability. The research so far shows that the implementation of this strategy most often takes place in mutual isolation, despite the merging of civilisation changes into a multidimensional system. The article points out the urgent need to combine modern civilisation's three most crucial development paths into one leading to sustainable and balanced development. System analysis and a critical examination of the literature were used. Researchers dealing with this issue often forget that the proper development of human civilisation must combine economic, social, ecological, and institutional aspects.</p> Agnieszka Becla Stanisław Czaja Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 38 49 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.487 Climate change adaptation in ex-ante assessment of legal acts – a proposal of indicators for Poland https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/525 <p>This article is aimed at developing a proposal of indicators to integrate climate change adaptation into the process of designing legislation and assessing the effectiveness of this legislation in adapting the society, the economy and the environment to climate change. Based on a review of climate change adaptation monitoring indicators used in selected European countries, an assessment of potential indicators according to the proposed criteria was carried out and a proposed list of indicators for monitoring climate change adaptation in selected economic sectors was developed for use in the ex-ante assessment of legislation.</p> <p>The proposed set of indicators can be used for ex-ante assessment of legal acts in terms of implementation of climate change adaptation requirements - both to determine the values of indicators selected for a given sector that are relevant to climate change adaptation, and then to monitor changes in these indicators to assess the effects of implementing legal regulations in terms of supporting the state's climate change adaptation policy.</p> Elżbieta Broniewicz Joanna Bukowska Joanna Godlewska Agata Lulewicz-Sas Edyta Sidorczuk-Pietraszko Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 52 73 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.525 Is the Blue Economy possible in Poland? https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/465 <p> Although the concept of the blue economy is relatively new, the European Union is already taking steps to make it a reality. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the scope of activities that should be carried out for the sustainable development of the blue economy in Poland. It was decided to analyze basic data and indicators to verify whether the Polish maritime and coastal economy meets the goals of the blue economy. During the research, it became apparent that inaccuracies in terminology affect the selection of indicators. Therefore, the definitions and classification of sectors related to the blue economy were verified. Based on the literature review and the available data, the Polish maritime and coastal economy has considerable potential to be transformed into a blue economy. However, major barriers have also been identified, the removal of which requires a systematic approach. Furthermore, the benefits and costs associated with the transformation are highlighted.</p> Dorota Michalak Paulina Szyja Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 74 96 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.465 Critical processes and risk factors of disturbances in the implementation of ecological reusable packaging into context of e-commerce sustainable development https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/483 <p> The aim of the article is to identify critical processes in the context of the implementation of returnable packaging in e-commerce and potential risk factors of disruptions in the use of ecological reusable packaging in e-commerce logistics services provided by Arvato Poland Sp. z o.o. they are based in Warsaw. The study is in line with the objectives of the European Green Deal and the circular economy. The applied research methods and techniques included: elementary analysis, desk research analysis, in-depth face-to-face interviews, causal analysis and selected methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The empirical study was carried out in 2021 in two locations of Arvato Poland Sp. z o.o. A review of the literature on the subject indicates that the use of ecological returnable pack-<br />aging in e-commerce logistics is one of the available solutions with great potential to strengthen the sustainable development of the fashion industry. However, the conducted research revealed a high complexity of problems, mainly in the process of accepting, packing, shipping and returning the packaging, which was considered critical for handling e-commerce orders. An in-depth analysis using the Ishikawa diagram identified the causes of potential risk factors for disruptions in the use of reusable eco-packaging in the e-commerce market. It was indicated that improving the process of its implementation should focus on removing factors that make up the identified main categories of their causes. <br />The conclusions of the study can have practical applications to improve the functioning of cost-effective and environmentally friendly e-commerce logistics. The system approach used by the authors in the study of returnable unit packaging in the sustainable development of closed-loop e-commerce contributes to the reduction of the research gap in this thematic area. The issue of ecological reusable packaging is in the initial phase of cognitive research and pilot tests.</p> Urszula Motowidlak Daniel Tokarski Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 97 117 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.483 An algorithm for the identification of nuisance objects in urban space in relation to the social function of sustainable development https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/457 <p>In this paper, the authors argue that it is necessary to identify and visualize nuisance objects in a given urban space and the level of nuisance they create. To this end, the authors propose an algorithm, the results of which provide information on the preferences of residents. The obtained results are recorded and visualized in Geographic Information System (GIS) software that enables their implementation into open-access map portals.</p> <p>The added value of the research is a wide public access to data, enabling decision-making models within the context of precision spatial planning to help find solutions for limiting the negative effects of nuisance objects. Studies have shown that nuisance objects are present in urban space, and the weight of their impact on society is significant. The aim of the research and of the developed algorithm is to improve the quality of life of residents in the context of sustainable urban development.</p> Natalia Sajnóg Elżbieta Zysk Mariusz Prokopczuk Justyna Duma Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 118 148 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.457 National Sustainability Index as a tool for evaluating the implementation of sustainable development goals in Poland in 2010-2019 https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/481 <p>The paper presents the assessment results of the implementation of Poland's national sustainable development goals from 2010 to 2019. For this purpose, using taxonomic methods, a synthetic index (National Sustainability Index) was designed. The study sought answers to the following questions: What is Poland's general level of accomplishment of sustainable development goals? What were the dynamics of changes in respective years? Which goals require special attention and actions in the coming years? Considering the possible range of the NSI, a significant improvement in the accomplishment of the national sustainable development goals in Poland was observed in the surveyed years. Nevertheless, some areas still need intervention at the decision-making level, which would contribute to further balancing the paths of economic growth and development in Poland. The added value of the analyses is the synthetic measure designed based on 76 specific indicators and the evaluation of sustainable development in Poland over ten years.</p> Armand Kasztelan Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 150 172 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.481 Determinants and effects of Poland’s road accidents in the context of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development – poviat level analysis for the years 2010-2019 https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/469 <p>The objective of the research was to assess how selected factors influence road safety in Poland’s poviats. To that end, an analysis was conducted of road accident determinants and effects in the poviats in the years 2010-2019. The time horizon fits in with Goal 3.6. of Agenda 2030 which is to halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents by 2020. The article presents the results of the analysis for the following determinants: the rate of car ownership by poviat, poviat spending on transport and length of road network, and quality of road infrastructure. The research problem was to establish which of the poviats are closest to achieving Goal 3.6. of Agenda 2030 and how likely it is, and, as a consequence, which of the poviats should step up their road safety policies to align them to the targets set out in the Agenda. To identify groups of poviats sharing similar characteristics, they were grouped using the k-means method. Five groups of poviats were identified and analysed for how their road safety indicators changed between 2010 and 2019. The results of the analysis show that the highest fatality reduction (-40%) was achieved by urban poviats with the highest per capita spending on transport. The same poviats, however, have the highest increases in serious injuries (+30%). The analyses show that Polish poviats are still far from achieving Goal 3.6 of Agenda 2030. The research results presented in the article are original for the poviat level.</p> Aleksandra Romanowska Sylwia Pangsy-Kania Marcin Budzyński Katarzyna Wierzbicka Joanna Prystrom Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 173 193 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.469 Importance and challenges for agriculture from High Nature Value Farmlands (HNVf) in Poland in the context of the provision of public goods under the European Green Deal https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/494 <p>The study aims to identify and characterise the organisational and economic features of agriculture in Poland in areas (communes) with different saturation of agriculture from High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf areas) with exceptionally high natural value. It is also important to determine whether the potential changes in agriculture in communes with a particularly large share of them do not harm the natural environment and limit the possibility of providing society with public goods. The delimitation of the three scenarios of HNVf areas was designated in the country at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in 2018. HNVf areas of moderate, high, and exceptionally high natural value were designated. To achieve the purpose of the study, data from the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture (ARMA) for 2016 and 2021 and data from the Polish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) for 2018-2020 was obtained. It was established that in Poland, the share of HNVf areas currently ranges from 12.5 (exceptionally high natural value) to 27.1% (moderate-high nature value) of the total UAA. Compared to other areas, HNVf areas with exceptionally high natural value are characterised by agriculture with a high level of extensive production. Farms from these areas obtain, e.g. lower total costs incurred per 1 ha of UAA, often lower productivity of production factors and lower income per 1 ha of UAA.</p> Marek Zieliński Jan Jadczyszyn Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 194 219 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.494 Value of recreation utility of the Polish Baltic coast – willingness to pay or willingness to declare? https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/484 <p>The idea of improving the quality of the Baltic Sea enjoys common understanding and acceptance. An implementation of this idea requires a cost benefit analysis in order to define the correct scope of intervention. Monetary valuation of the benefits arising from the quality improvement was conducted for the Baltic Sea with the use of contingent valuation method, choice experiments, and travel cost method. Crucial sources for such valuation were the stated preferences of the respondents. Availability of ex-post data describing the occupancy rate of the swimming sites on the Polish stretch of the Baltic coast, collected for four consecutive years, makes it possible to compare two concepts i.e. the ex-ante declarations concerning willingness to use high quality environment and the actual consumers’ choices. The results reveal serious discrepancies between the ex-ante and ex-post methods.</p> Krzysztof Berbeka Tomasz Misiak Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 220 234 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.484 Legal, economic, and environmental conditions for the application of “fee for discharging rainwater and snowmelt into waters” in Poland https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/477 <p>This paper aims to identify and analyse the legal, economic and environmental conditions for the application of fees for discharging rainwater and snowmelt into waters. The article discusses the fundamental problems of rainwater management in Poland and the consequences of several decades of neglect. Economic and legal instruments used in water resources management are indicated. The fee for discharging rainwater and snowmelt to waters is characterised in detail. This paper shows the critical functions of the fee, legislative flaws, problems in practical application, factors determining the amount of the financial burden and potential measures for its optimisation. The directions of legislative changes, conditioning the fulfilment by the fee of the functions ascribed to it, have been indicated. This article is based on a review of the literature, legal acts, and statistical data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management and the Polish Central Statistical Office.</p> Wojciech Piontek Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 235 256 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.477 Toxicity assessment of sewage sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/491 <p>The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of sewage sludge from the municipal sewage treatment plant in Bialystok. Raw sewage, sewage sludge from the primary settling tank, activated sludge, sludge before the fermentation chamber, recirculated sludge and sewage sludge after fermentation and dehydration on press were tested. The Microtox Model 500 kit using <em>Aliivibrio fischeri</em> luminescent bacteria was used for the toxicity analyzes. The EC<sub>50</sub> index (indicating the concentration of toxic substances resulting in a 50% reduction in the intensity of luminescence of the bacterial strains used) converted into the TUa toxicity units was adopted as the value describing the toxicity of the tested media. The obtained results showed high and very high ecotoxicity of raw sewage and sewage sludge from the primary settling tank, sludge in front of the fermentation chamber and after fermentation and dehydration in the press. The use of tests determining the toxicity of sewage flowing into the sewage treatment plant and sewage sludge generated at various stages of the treatment process allows to detect the danger associated with the uncontrolled discharge of toxic substances into the sewage system.</p> Eliza Hawrylik Andrzej Butarewicz Marzanna Andraka Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 257 268 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.491 Water and wastewater management in a small tanning facility https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/493 <p>This paper presents a tannery industry's water and wastewater management problem. Information has been collected on the volume of water demand and, consequently, wastewater generation in these plants. This made it possible to relate them to the values generated by one of the smaller tanning plants located in Poland. The concentration of the pollutants contained in this wastewater, mainly chromium, was also determined from the study. Management of wastewater is a financial nuisance for small plants. The need to conclude contracts with specialized treatment plants, storage and long-distance transport of sewage, also by the respective companies, generates considerable costs, which may be a limiting factor of the willingness to invest in production. Wort reuse reduces the cost of purchasing chromium as a bath ingredient, reduces the frequency of waste disposal and significantly reduces company costs.</p> Maciej Dziadel Katarzyna Ignatowicz Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 269 285 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.493 Crowdsourcing initiatives in city management: the perspective of Polish local governments https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/519 <p><span data-contrast="none">The past decade has seen a rise in the significance of the Internet facilitating the communication between local governments and local stakeholders. A growing role in this dialog has been played by crowdsourcing. The paper aims to identify areas, forms, and tools for the implementation of crowdsourcing in managing cities in Poland as well as the assessment of benefits provided by the use of crowdsourcing initiatives by representatives of municipal governments. The article utilized a quantitative study method of the survey realized on a sample of 176 city governments from Poland. Conducted studies have shown that crowdsourcing initiatives of cities concern such areas as culture, city image, spatial management, environmental protection, security, recreation and tourism as well as relations between entrepreneurs and city hall, transport and innovations. Forms of stakeholder engagement via crowdsourcing involve civic budgets, "voting/polls/surveys and interviews" as well as "debate/discussion/meeting, workshop, postulates and comments". The larger the city the more often its representatives employ the forms of crowdsourcing listed above. Local governments most frequently carry out crowdsourcing initiatives by utilizing cities' official web pages, social media, and special platforms dedicated to public consultations. The larger the city the greater the value placed on the utility of crowdsourcing.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Ewa Glińska Halina Kiryluk Karolina Ilczuk Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 287 311 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.519 Environmental awareness of Polish and Arab Students: cross-cultural comparative study https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/499 <p> The article aims to define the differences and similarities between students of Polish and Arab nationality related to environmental awareness. The study has been carried out as a diagnostic survey using the proprietary questionnaire form. The survey included 418 Polish students representing 44 universities and 110 Arab students from 7 countries and 40 universities. Both groups have been shown to have their own distinct characteristics, although some similarities can also be found. The greatest differences are revealed in the scope of subjective assessment of the state of the environment, types of pro-environmental actions taken by them and readiness to make sacrifices to the environment. The similarities are noticeable in declared knowledge about the environment, the sources of information on the environment and its quality and opinions on the most important environmental threats. The most important reasons for the observed variability are differences between environmental conditions in Poland and on the Arabian Peninsula, differences in the scope of environmental hazards and problems, as well as various cultural conditions (especially religious ones) and related values.</p> Arnold Bernaciak Mohammad Z. Yamin Racha Rustom Anna Bernaciak Martyna Janicka Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 312 325 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.499 Analytical perspective on the interest of Slovak consumers in certified ecological products https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/480 <p>People's interest in certified ecological products, environmental organisations, and issues related to environmental protection is a broadly conceived issue and is also a black box for green marketing – the paper deals with the analysis of Slovak consumer interest in certified products and environmental organisations. The aim is to observe and analyse the interest of consumers in accredited products and environmental organisations and to point out significant differences between the respondents' gender and place of residence on environmental behaviour. It is known from the research results that they register the given environmental certificates but do not know all of them simultaneously. The most famous for them is the ecological certificate Environmentally Suitable Product. The product marked in this way creates an impression of environmental friendliness and a guarantee of higher quality. Consumers register these products mainly from websites and the mass media. Gender differences in the expression of interest in environmental product certificates were confirmed, and differences in consumer purchasing decisions regarding certified environmental products in residence were not confirmed.</p> Martin Rovňák Lenka Stofejova Lubomir Kmec Miroslav Benko Daniel Salabura Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 326 341 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.480 Forest functions and abiotic threats in private forests: conclusions from an empirical analysis of stakeholder opinions https://www.ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/470 <p>The study aimed to recognise the preferences of various stakeholder groups representing three regions of Poland towards the most important forest ecosystem services and to determine the threats to performing these functions resulting from the occurrence of extreme weather phenomena. The study was based on surveys conducted in 2019 among various stakeholders in three regions of Poland. The respondents assigned a point weight value to each of the seven indicated forest functions and reported the occurrence of extreme weather events causing damage to forests owned or supervised by them. The survey results indicate that for all stakeholders, the most important function of the forest is timber production. However, respondents from the southern region paid more attention to water protection through forests than respondents from other regions.</p> Emilia Wysocka-Fijorek Piotr Gołos Wojciech Gil Małgorzata Sułkowska Vasyl Mohytych Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 82 3 342 360 10.34659/eis.2022.82.3.470