Economics and Environment <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" is an international quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources published in Poland. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p><strong>ISSN </strong>0867-8898<strong>, e-ISSN </strong>2300-6420</p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p><strong>Impact Factor = 0.4</strong></p> <p><strong>CiteScore (2022) = 0.8</strong></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry; agriculture and horticulture</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance; social and economic geography and spatial management; management and quality studies; law</p> <p><strong>4. The field of science and natural sciences:</strong> biotechnology</p> <p><span style="color: #000000;"><em>Economics and Environment</em> is an<strong> Open Access</strong> journal that allows free unlimited access to its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users. It provides access to its content under the <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. Authors who publish with our journal agree to make the submitted article available under the terms of the above-mentioned <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. </span> </p> <p> </p> Wydawnictwo Ekonomia i Środowisko en-US Economics and Environment 0867-8898 <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. 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The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</li> </ul> </div> Summaries in Polish Economics and Environment Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 Reducing food waste as a base of innovative Lean Society philosophy <p> Due to the high level of losses and food waste nowadays, the problem become global. The main causes of food loss in households are: exceeding shelf life, excessive purchases, damage and low quality, additionally excessive portions of meals, wrong food storage, the bad taste of the product, lack of idea on how to use available ingredients, as well as reckless purchases, too large packaging. Negative effects of food loss can be grouped into three areas: environmental, economic and social, consistent with sustainable development's basic goals. The aim of this article is to present an original proposal for an approach to Lean Society philosophy with respect to the problem of food loss. The authors reviewed conventional and unconventional methods of food preservation, identified available and innovative solutions in terms of reducing food loss and indicated directions and opportunities for reducing food loss on the basis of Lean Society philosophy.</p> Anetta Zielińska Magdalena Dąbrowska Grygorii Monastyrskyi Mariola Drozda Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 8 28 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.585 Governance effectiveness and green bonds. An empirical evaluation <p style="font-weight: 400;">The study aims to assess the relationship between governance effectiveness, measured by the Worldwide Governance Indicators, and the use of green bonds worldwide. We apply panel data models with random effects and a robust linear regression model that allows us to identify the impact of the family of variables on green bonds. We found a statistically significant correlation between the quality of a government, measured as government effectiveness, and the value of green bond issuances. Thus, it is advised under New Public Governance to increase the effectiveness of their functioning, which may contribute to greater investor interest in environmental projects.</p> Hanna Kociemska Sylwia Frydrych Ewelina Szczech-Pietkiewicz Mariusz Radło Rafał Kasprzak Paweł Rokita Radosław Pietrzyk Krzysztof Biegun Bogusław Półtorak Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 30 51 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.561 Ecosystem services contributing to local economic sectors – conceptual framework of linking ecosystem services, benefits and economic sectors <p>The paper introduces the principles of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting-Ecosystem Accounting. The aim of the work is to present the application of the conceptual framework of linking ecosystem services, benefits and economic sectors. The analysis relates to years 2012 and 2018. The case study area represents five municipalities that cross borders with the Ślężański Landscape Park and its buffer zone in the Lower Silesia region in Poland. Results show that cropland-related ecosystem services contribute to 17% and 14 % percent of all companies operating in the case study area. The direct link between agricultural benefits and five economic sectors was established. The ecosystem extent account is created, and the land cover flows analysed. The applicability of ecosystem accounting to local governance is discussed.</p> Marta Sylla Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 52 67 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.571 Key economic sectors for green job creation in Poland – an empirical analysis <p>In this study, we employed a stepwise empirical approach to identify economic sectors and analyze the regional potential for green job (GJ) creation in Poland. We used the operating register of economic entities (REGON) and Polish Labor Force Survey (BAEL) data for the period between 2015 and 2022. The changes in REGON reflect a proxy of changes in GJ stock in sectors of economic activity (PKD-2007) and regions. We estimated trends and spatial diversification of green employment. The results revealed that Mazowieckie, Wielkopolskie, Małopolskie, and Śląskie are the most attractive regions for GJ creation. The polarization of green employment declined during the analyzed period, but spatial disparities were still significant. Most sectors noted increases in GJ, except for agriculture, where the downward trend in employment has a significant influence on the green labour market. Our findings may be useful when formulating policy recommendations for educational institutions, employment institutions, local governments, government institutions, investors, and employers.</p> Elżbieta Antczak Artur Gajdos Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 68 89 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.599 Administrative sanctions for environmental crime in selected EU areas <p>Each country in the European Union (EU) has its own legal system of environmental protection inc. rules of eco-crime fighting. The world copes environmental crime, developing better and better structures, laws and control systems. Establishing effective administrative sanction rules may help decrease environmental damage. The goal of the paper is the comparison of administrative sanctions for environmental crime in five different areas of the EU: France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Poland. The mechanisms of sanctions, fines and penalties in studied areas are based on financial fines. Although the states do their best to develop the most effective tools possible to enforce environmental protection and control its quality, it is not always possible in reality. Understanding and weighing the value of environmental destruction is difficult. It takes into account the human, economic and ecological aspects (considering the quality of the environment closest to the natural state).</p> Iwona Skoczko Marek Grabowski Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 90 109 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.510 Analysis of operator models for rainwater management in Poland – towards the integrated management model <p>Over the last decade, Poland has witnessed a statutory change in the definition of rainwater. It stopped being regarded as wastewater. Municipalities in Poland have developed different models for rainwater management and various ways of financing them. The aim of the study is to identify and describe the most important elements of rainwater management models in Poland with the use of operators. It focused not only on constitutive features of the system but also on financial aspects, such as fees and investments (with the omission of fiscal ones). The study helped to identify three organisationally distinguishable operator models and indicated strengths and weaknesses of each of them. Such a systematic and structured analysis lays the groundwork for the assessment of these models and enables other municipalities to make a conscious decision on which model to implement.</p> Ksymena Rosiek Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 110 139 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.554 The role of rivers in creating a blue-green city economy on the example of Wroclaw and Gdansk <p>The article aims to analyse and critically evaluate the use of blue-green infrastructure in the city. The study was conducted on the example of the Wrocław and Gdańsk rivers. An essential element of the analysis is to determine the possibilities of introducing and improving blue-green infrastructure by using good practices in these urban units, particularly those relating to the role of rivers. During the study, the following research questions were formulated: What megatrend of urban development is defined by current conditions, and what do urban units gain in this way? Is the blue-green potential of the examined cities effectively used? What is the state of development of blue-green zones in and around the river? The methods used to write the article are desk research, case study, analysis of the researched areas using up-to-date cartographic materials, IDI, literature, and legal status analysis. The study supports the exchange of information between cities and the management of the river in the city.</p> Dorota Rynio Hanna Adamiczka Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 140 153 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.557 Sustainable development, Agenda 2030 and food security in historical perspective <p>The sustainable development (SD) concept has won substantial popularity in recent decades. At the same time, neoliberalism (the socio-economic orthodoxy since the mid-1970s) is somewhat put in the shade. The paper attempts to find out whether the SD paradigm and its recent incarnation (Agenda 2030) constitutes a decisive break from the mainstream. The second aim is to assess whether the concept of food security is adequately addressed by the Agenda 2030. The study shows that Agenda 2030, with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals, is a much broader concept than preceding MDGs, but it still cannot guarantee the attainment of food security both in the short-term (the risk of commodity price bubbles) and in the longer-term (i.e. till 2030) due to the prevalence of extreme poverty, high-income inequality, structural weakness of many developing countries and inadequate global regulation.</p> Wiktor Szydło Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 154 174 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.560 Municipal waste management in municipalities in Poland – towards a circular economy model <p>The aim of the study was to answer the question of to what extent it is possible in Poland to reach the target recycling rates and landfill of municipal waste by 2035 and build a circular economy model (CEM) by 2050. The authors will continue research in this area. In the article, the authors: 1) diagnose EU and Polish legislation in the given area, 2) review the literature with regard to the circular economy, 3) analyse municipal waste streams in Poland and present their forecasts for the period of Poland’s approach to the CEM. The data were taken from the public statistics and refer mainly to the period 2013-2021. The study used the method of literature analysis and legal regulations, as well as methods of descriptive analysis and linear extrapolation. The results obtained, albeit aggregated, suggest that it is possible to reach the EU-targeted recycling and landfill level for municipal waste in Poland by 2035 and the CEM by 2050.</p> Janina Kotlińska Helena Żukowska Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 175 197 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.565 Financial efficiency vs. environmental efficiency on the example of the meat and poultry industry in Poland <p>The purpose of the article is to assess the relationship between financial efficiency and environmental efficiency in the meat and poultry industry in Poland between 2010-2020. Firstly, the assessment of financial efficiency in the area of profitability was underdone. Secondly, the environmental efficiency in the area of selected environmental policy components was assessed. Based on the results, the author built an econometric model examining the impact of binary variables on individual financial efficiency indicators in the area of profitability. The study consists of theoretical and practical parts. In the theoretical part, methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison and graphical transposition of data were used. In the practical part, quantitative methods: ratio financial analysis, ANOVA method, panel econometric modelling, and qualitative methods – case studies, were used. The study shows that for financial efficiency, the values of the net sales profitability ratio are statistically significant. The most important factor for environmental efficiency are consistently implementing transparent environmental policies. The practical implication of the study contributes to financial support for the meat and poultry industry in Poland. The social implication of the study is the urge to implement the principle of sustainable consumption.</p> Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 198 219 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.556 Analysis of the types and effects of possible errors in the implementation of ecological reusable packaging into e-commerce using FMEA <p>One of the most important features of the e-commerce logistics process is its reliability. It is obtained by properly planning the process and then ensuring its course is in accordance with the developed plan and all procedures. As the data show, most problems appear at the stage of designing and preparing products and processes for implementation. Detecting potential causes of non-compliance can help prevent unwanted events from occurring. The aim of the article is to identify and assess the risk for the process and product in terms of the possibility of using reusable packaging in e-commerce logistics services provided by ARVATO Polska Sp. z o. o. with its registered office in Warsaw, taking into account preventive and corrective actions in relation to the risk. Through the use of research methodology in the form of risk mapping, 13 potential risk factors were identified, and recommendations were formulated to avoid and mitigate the effects of disruptions. Among the identified risk factors, the quality of the packaging itself, including the appropriate packaging material and the level of packaging flexibility, turned out to be the most important. The conclusions of the study may have practical applications to improve the functioning of cost-effective and environmentally friendly e-commerce logistics. The importance of these analyses increases in the assessment of innovative solutions that can be considered as the use of ecological returnable packaging in e-commerce logistics. Their goal is to identify and eliminate possible packaging failures on the market.</p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> </span></p> Daniel Tokarski Urszula Motowidlak Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 221 235 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.602 Life cycle assessment of glass/polyester laminates used in the shipbuilding industry and its fire behavior <p>The aim of this study is to assess the environmental performance of the manufacturing process of glass/polyester laminates as well as estimate their fire behaviour and smoke release. The Life Cycle Assessment was conducted according to the ISO14040/44 standard by using the CML-IA 2000 Baseline Midpoint method. The cone calorimeter study was conducted using a cone calorimeter method according to ISO 5660. The tests were performed under 25 kW/m2 heat flux 50 kW/m<sup>2</sup>. The results showed that according to the requirements of the Fire Test Procedure (FTP) Code examined, laminates in this form cannot be used in some applications. The LCA study showed that the highest impact is attributed to marine aquatic ecotoxicity (88.3%), with the highest contribution of the unsaturated polyester resin and the glass fibre.</p> Adriana Dowbysz Bożena Kukfisz Mariola Samsonowicz Dorota Markowska Piotr Jankowski Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 236 254 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.529 Effectiveness of organic food marketing <p>The principal aim of this study was to assess the economic results and marketing effectiveness of selected companies dealing with the production and distribution of organic food. The diagnostic survey method was applied in the study. It was conducted on popular social media in 2021 with 686 respondents. The study findings show that the marketing strategy has been ineffective so far. This means that there exists an informationally excluded area, which must be filled in. Therefore, effective product marketing should be developed based on personalised advertisements on social media and online trade. The study findings can contribute to the popularisation and broadening of knowledge regarding the behaviour of organic food buyers. Determining the factors affecting the buying process and motivations will aid stakeholders in building an effective marketing strategy for organic food. This may have a beneficial effect on the development and diversification of the organic food market, whose production may contribute to an improvement of the natural environment condition and the quality of life, as well as the promotion of local food producers.</p> Katarzyna Chrobocińska Aleksandra Lotkowska Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 255 270 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.548 Agricultural producers' knowledge of rational water management – case stage (Poland, EU) <p>Water is considered the most critical resource for agricultural development worldwide. The increasing extreme weather phenomena require rational management of water resources in agriculture, which is the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The article is an attempt to take on the subject of agricultural producers’<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"><sup>[1]</sup></a> awareness of selected aspects of rational water management in agricultural production. For this purpose, a pilot survey was used and carried out in selected poviats (counties) in the zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerian) Voivodeship, implemented as part of the “Support for the Creation of Local Water Partnerships” project (Support for the creation of LPW, SIR, 2020).</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"><sup>[1]</sup></a> The article will use the term agricultural producer - farmer interchangeably.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Lidia Kłos Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 271 295 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.553 Characteristics of sewage sludge composition for agricultural use <p>The article focuses on the research conducted on sewage sludge in Ternopil City, Ukraine, with a specific emphasis on its microelement composition and implications for disposal and utilisation. Bacterial contamination in both old and new sludge storage facilities is revealed by the study. It is found that the sludge holds potential as a fertiliser due to its nutrient content and organic matter, although adjustments may be necessary for specific soil conditions. However, it is determined that the permissible limits for agricultural use are exceeded by heavy metal concentrations, indicating pollution resulting from landfills, old pipes, and intensive agriculture. According to existing regulations, the sludge is considered suitable only for composting. The importance of sludge monitoring, treatment, and management is underscored by the findings, as they are crucial for ensuring safe disposal, mitigating environmental risks, and addressing potential health hazards.</p> Tetiana Vitenko Nataliia Marynenko Iryna Kramar Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 296 307 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.609 Analysis of road accident causes in the voivodships in the years 2014-2021 in the aspect of socio-economic costs – towards the implementation of sustainable development <p>The article addresses the topic of road safety. The reduction of road accident injuries and fatalities fits in with Agenda 2030 sustainable development goals. The objective of the research was to assess road accidents caused by voivodships. The analysis took account of the socio-economic differences in the voivodships, which determine the unit costs of fatalities and injuries. A descriptive analysis is given to show the dynamics of changes in the years 2014-2021 in the voivodships and how different factors influenced change. The article analyses the relation between road safety and the region’s socio-economic development. Data availability determined the time series applied. As we know from research, accidents fall in relation to the (demographic) density of improved roads. Accidents increase, however, in relation to the density of population and GDP per capita. These relations take the opposite direction if the (demographic) fatality rate or accident severity rate (fatalities per 100 accidents) is the dependent variable. Socio-economic losses were estimated using Statistics Poland data. They are the indirect causes of road accidents which occur as a result of lost production due to premature death or incapacity. To value the unit costs of road accidents, the PANDORA method was used. The analysis helped to group the voivodships for their highest and lowest socio-economic costs of road accidents with a special focus on the unit costs of road deaths. The originality of the research is related to the updated voivodship level research.</p> <p><em> </em></p> Sylwia Pangsy-Kania Aleksandra Romanowska Marcin Budzyński Katarzyna Wierzbicka Joanna Prystrom Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 308 327 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.604 Activities of local government units in the popularization and promotion of a healthy lifestyle among an aging rural society – the case of Poland <p>Purpose: Three goals were set in the study, which was met: to present the expected changes in the population of Poland, discuss the concept of "living in health" and prognoses regarding this issue. Methodology: The objects of the study were rural and urban-rural communes of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The statistical analysis of collected survey data was used as the method. Findings: The level of health popularisation and promotion by Local Government Units (LGUs) is varied. The activities related to the popularisation and promotion of a healthy lifestyle are moderate in 47.9% of respondents in rural communes and 17.4% in urban-rural communes. The level of indebtedness has an impact on undertaking activities in the field of health popularisation and promotion but does not affect the availability of sports and recreation infrastructure. At the same time, too few actual observations were indicated for TSUs taking the full range of measures and having a debt level falling into the 21-30% group (76%). However, too many observations (126%) relate to debt levels of 11-20%. Access to sports infrastructure does not affect the level of health popularisation and promotion. The obtained answers indicate that 34.5% of rural communes and 10% urban-rural have no problem with access to recreational infrastructure, for 35.5% of respondents from rural communes and 11.8% from urban-rural, this is a moderate problem. Implications: The ageing society causes changes and consequences in all areas of socio-economic life. The activities of some local governments are insufficient, and there is a lack of consistency in their conduct in this area.</p> Mariola Mamcarczyk Łukasz Popławski Paweł Zieniuk Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 329 346 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.598 Possibility of using EMAS environmental reporting requirements for ESG reporting in selected automotive corporations <p>The lack of uniform guidelines on how ESG measures are calculated leads to a lack of transparency and problems while comparing them over time and between different entities. It can be noted that EMAS, may help in the implementation of ESG reporting. The aim of the article is to analyse the possibility of using environmental reporting required under Regulation in the field of ESG reporting and to indicate the possibilities of using existing solutions to ensure comparability of results between individual areas regarding environmental impact and organisations. This article presents the latest guidelines in the field of sustainability reporting, assesses the possibility of using the existing reporting under EMAS to report environmental indicators, and presents the current approach of selected automotive concerns to ESG reporting. The article contributes to the utilisation of existing reporting systems in order not to impose an excessive administrative burden on enterprises and to maximise synergies.</p> Aleksandra Kamińska-Witkowska Alina Matuszak-Flejszman Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 347 368 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.588 Emergy analysis of pond fish farming – a case study for a large fish farm in Poland <p>The immediate goal of the article is an emergy analysis of fish production on an exemplary fish farm. Additionally, it was compared, in terms of environmental burden, with other exemplary agricultural productions. On the basis of the calculated emergy inflows, selected emergy indicators (ELR, EYR, REN) were calculated, showing the scale of use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The results show that the analysed fish production does not burden the environment and largely uses renewable resources, unlike other intensive agricultural productions. The ELR value was compared with its values for other exemplary agricultural production. In fish farming, this indicator is most often lower than 1. It is assumed that such activity does not burden the environment. Animal production requires the involvement of additional space for fodder production. Therefore the differences in the area necessary for the production of a food unit (GJ) of exemplary plant and animal products are also shown. Emergy analysis and its results can provide valuable information for decision-makers in terms of the direction of a given production.</p> Anna Kuczuk Janusz Pospolita Jacek Pieczonka Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 369 394 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.555 The impact of onshore wind farms on the tourist value of the environment in the opinion of Poland's inhabitants. Analysis of secondary empirical research results <p>In Poland, after several years of stagnation, onshore wind energy is becoming an important subject of interest for state and local authorities and society. An optimistic outlook for wind turbine investments is therefore emerging. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the social conditions that are an expression of public awareness that supports the construction of wind farms and to understand social opinions on the influence of wind farms on the local landscape, especially on the tourist values of the landscape.</p> <p>To characterise the topic under study, the methods of literature review, statistical analysis, and secondary document analysis were used. Results of the nationwide empirical studies contained in the reports indicated a high level of public awareness of Polish society accepting investments in onshore wind farms. They do not diminish its tourist and recreational values and do not limit the development of tourist traffic.</p> Agnieszka Wartecka - Ważyńska Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 395 419 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.542 Barriers influencing purchase behaviour of green personal care products – integrating innovation resistance theory perspective and stages of change model <p>The study aimed to identify and explain perceived barriers to green consumption at different stages of behaviour change by integrating the Innovation Resistance Theory (IRT) and Stages of Behavioural Change (SOC) model. Through 20 in-depth interviews with consumers transitioning to green consumption at various stages, several barriers were identified. The knowledge barrier played a crucial role in shaping the adaptation process at every stage of change and was recognized as an independent construct within the IRT framework. Moreover, the research revealed that barriers such as tradition, value, usage, and risk exerted a stronger inhibitory effect in the early stages of green consumption, while knowledge and image barriers evolved and had a distinct impact as consumers progressed through the stages. The study also highlighted triggers that positively stimulated green consumption. These findings have implications for green marketing and can guide targeted interventions to promote sustainable consumption more effectively.</p> Marta Szaban Magdalena Stefańska Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 420 455 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.570 Renewable energy sources as a way to prevent climate warming in Poland <p>The discussion on renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energy, conducted in Poland reveals diverse positions among representatives of science, business, local government, and government. It is generally accepted that renewable energy sources are an important factor in limiting global warming. However, it is also emphasised that this energy absorbs high costs related to, e.g. the acquisition of rare metals used in the production of wind turbines, with the disposal of used parts. The article aims to present the opinions of representatives of science, economic practice, and authorities as an expression of behaviour toward the problem of climate warming and renewable energy. An example of expressed opinions is the discussion in the public space, which is created by publications in magazines and non-serial literature. As a result of using the method of analysis of secondary materials, the article shows the diversity of views on the subject under study. Opposing views on the causes of global warming have found that wind energy can limit global warming, but it can also cause damage to the economy, landscape, and human health. Wind energy development is determined by legal, organisational, economic, and technological obstacles that are difficult to overcome in Poland. However, the need to develop renewable energy, including wind and solar energy, is supported by 85% of Polish society.</p> Jan Sikora Kazimierz Zimniewicz Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 456 475 10.34659/eis.2023.85.2.545 The review of the book WILD GARDENS – CREATING NATURALISTIC GARDENS Eugeniusz Kośmicki Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 85 2 476 479