Economics and Environment <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" is a leading Polish quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p> </p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance, social and economic geography and<br />spatial management, management and quality studies</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> en-US <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. 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The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</li> </ul> </div> (Elzbieta Broniewicz, Editor in Chief) (Magis) Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Summaries in Polish <p>Summaries in Polish</p> Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Normative ecological economics as a condition for sustainable development <p> This paper aims to highlight the absolute competitiveness between positive and normative economics. The article presents this controversy as a pretext to analyse a specific field of operation of ecological economics. The normative approach in the ecological economics is needed in the complex age of increasing deficits and confronting threats to biological and social sustainability. Reliable data from biology, physics, chemistry and medicine inform us what is dangerous. They also suggest directions of changes and their necessary scale. The normative approach, based on the guidelines from the basic natural sciences, allows for the creation of economic theories and models and then derives specific, quantitative premises for actions taken in the economy. The thesis of this article boils down to the statement that the effective involvement of ecological economics in the theoretical and practical solving of sustainable development problems is possible only through the use of the normative approach.</p> Jerzy Śleszyński Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Principles of management in the implementing balanced and sustainable development - selected problems <p>The study presents selected issues concerning management principles in implementing balanced and sustainable development. These include the principles of: (1) traditional extensive economy, (2) intensive traditional economy, (3) alternative economies, (4) eco-development, (5) Sustainable Development and (6) entropy sustainable development. Selected criteria for the evaluation of these principles were also characterised.</p> Stanisław Czaja, Agnieszka Becla Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Does being socially good save firms from bankruptcy? A systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis <p> The purpose of the review was to find out, does being responsible saves firms from bankruptcy? What is the relationship between corporate social responsibility and default risk? What methods and measures are used in the literature to evaluate this relationship? And what is the theoretical underpinning of the studies? Moreover, to explore what are the gaps for future work, Web of Science and Scopus databases were utilised to obtain the relevant articles for review. A total of 24 articles were reviewed using PRISMA systematic literature review and bibliometrics. This review finds that the literature has an unidirectional inverse relationship between corporate social responsibility and default risk. Moreover, most literature utilises the stakeholder perspective as the theoretical framework. <br />A research gap exists in explaining the relationship between different theories and extending the model with various aspects of macro- and micro-economics as well as finance. This article contributes to the theoretical aspect by classifying methods, proxies, and theoretical underpinnings used in the research for corporate social responsibility and default risk.</p> Muhammad Mushafiq, Błażej Prusak Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The Europeanization of Polish climate policy <p> The goal of the work was to analyse the positions of the selected Polish political parties about the European Union climate policy and to assess whether and to what extent the process of Europeanization is taking place in Poland. Climate change negatively influences economic growth: it affects food security and limits industrial output and economic development. It reduces labour productivity and influences international trade. The scope of this impact will depend on political decisions and the effectiveness of climate protection measures taken by individual governments. The negative attitude of political parties to climate policy may make it challenging to undertake the necessary adaptation and mitigation measures, even despite changes in social perception in this regard.</p> Piotr Swacha, Zbigniew M. Karaczun, Daria Murawska Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Municipal waste management as a polycentric system –the example of Poland <p>In developed countries, the main burden of waste management rests on the organised (formalised) and massive municipal waste management system. The functioning of these systems is regulated by legislation at the local, national, and international levels. At the same time, some waste fractions are entirely or partially excluded from this system (e.g. bulky waste, second-hand clothing, food, green waste, or metals). As in developing countries, they are partially managed through informal undertakings, the organisation of which, including the mode of operation, scale, or spatial coverage, are diversified. The formal system is organised hierarchically and strictly regulated by law. On the other hand, informal activities are governed by terms and conditions or sets of everyday rules. Thus, municipal waste management in developed countries forms a complex mosaic of activities, organisations and institutions that contribute to reducing waste and its nuisance.</p> <p>The paper aims to determine whether waste management systems in developed countries have the characteristics facilitating the achievement of the benefits resulting from a polycentric management system. The analysis was conducted using the Polish waste management system as an example. For this purpose, a Theoretical Model for the Commons (Carlisle &amp; Gruby, 2019) was used.</p> Agnieszka Ciechelska, Marta Kusterka-Jefmańska, Sabina Zaremba-Warnke Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Modeling of water age changes in water distribution systems in time and space <p>The paper presents a particularly important research variant in the process of modelling water distribution systems (WDS), which is the age of water. The age of the water in the pipes is a parameter that determines the freshness of the water. The main goal of the presented research was to analyse changes in water age by observing the basic parameters: pressure and water flow. As a result of the assumed simulations, potential places of secondary contamination were distinguished. The result of solving the situation was the introduction of all works aimed at eliminating and improving the negative changes by much more frequent monitoring of water in this area for physicochemical and bacteriological properties and regular flushing of pipelines. The research is carried out based on the mathematical model of the water supply network. The Epanet software is used as a research tool, which allows modelling changes in the age of water in the entire water distribution system over time. The basis of the conducted research became the time factor, which plays a particularly important role in the process of managing the water distribution system. Taking into account the time, it was observed how much water remains on a given section from the moment it flows from the inlet and is mixed with water already present throughout the network. A number of simulation options were analysed in terms of the operation of the water distribution system, where the key problem was water stagnation. It should be noted that stagnation of water is particularly dangerous in the case of WDS, the obtained results showed visible places on the tested model. Simulations lasting more than 8, 10 days showed a clear deterioration in its quality. The above studies are of particular importance from the point of view of managing the efficiency of the water supply network. The analysis of water in water supply systems, stagnating and thus ageing, shows that the efficiency of the system significantly decreases. The variability of conditions in the water distribution system also makes the performance of WDS, and especially of pumping units, variable.</p> Agnieszka Trębicka Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Composting of stabilized municipal sewage sludge with residues from agri-food processing in Poland <p>Stabilized municipal sewage sludge and selected waste from agri-food processing can be used for agricultural purposes, which is part of the circular economy. Therefore, chosen residues were tested for the possibility of using them for fertilisation purposes. They were then subjected to the process of composting in a bioreactor with artificial aeration. The compost mixtures were prepared to take into account their contents of, among others, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water; in the case of sewage sludge, the contents of biological contaminants and heavy metals were also determined. Based on the conducted studies, it has been found that organic waste from agri-food processing and stabilised municipal sewage sludge can be used in the composting process. At the same time, the obtained compost is characterised by good fertilising properties. Considering the physicochemical properties of the obtained compost, it was found that it can be a precious fertiliser used as a soil additive.</p> Małgorzata Krasowska, Małgorzata Kowczyk-Sadowy , Sławomir Obidziński Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Sustainable development in rural areas in the perspective of a decade of ecosystem restoration <p>Rural areas are included in the concept of sustainable development, and they are characterised by a great variety of flora, fauna, and habitats; apart from the function of food production, they can fulfil numerous functions related to the protection and shaping of the environment. The paper characterises the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. Selected parameters of agricultural plant production were described for the European Union, the Netherlands, and Poland. Factors significant in the context of the United Nations Decade of Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030) were indicated. The features of agriculture in Hajnówka county (where over 50% of the area is under protection) were selected as a reference point for the expected results, treating it as a model of an organisation for the harmonious development of agriculture in the 21st century. The study highlights the importance of biodiversity in rural areas for building a sustainable human welfare strategy. The use of ecosystem services will be permanent when the elements of the Decade of Ecosystem Restoration are widely disseminated and rooted in the civic consciousness of the inhabitants of Poland and similar spaces in Europe. This decade must be advertised as widely as possible for this to happen, writing about it in various contexts.</p> Aleksander Kiryluk, Joanna Kostecka Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Challenges for agriculture in Poland resulting from the implementation of the strategic objectives of the European Green Deal <p>The aim of the paper is to indicate the most important challenges for agriculture in Poland in the context of the implementation of the European Green Deal and the Polish Strategic Plan for the Common Agricultural Policy for the years 2023-2027. The primary tool used in the study was a comparative analysis of legal EU and Polish documents. This comparison was supplemented by an analysis of statistical data on agriculture in Poland, mainly covering 2005-2020, obtained from the Agricultural Census 2020, Statistics Poland, the National Centre for Emissions Management, the Agricultural and Food Commercial Quality Inspection and the European Medicines Agency. The results show that the Polish national targets for 2030 are significantly lower than the European ones but have been set, taking into account the feasibility of their implementation, which means that meeting each of the primary national targets in the agricultural sector will be very challenging.</p> Konrad Prandecki, Wioletta Wrzaszcz Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Analysis of the potential of effective microorganisms in plant production <p>The natural environment is changing under the influence of human activity and the development of new technologies. One of the ways to restore the balance of the natural environment is to limit conventional agriculture in favour of organic farming based on the use of organic and natural fertilisers, excluding the use of chemical inputs. This action will go a long way in improving biodiversity and natural resource wealth. Fertilisation in modern agriculture is one of the most important agrotechnical procedures in deciding on the size and quality of the obtained crops. In organic farming, soil microorganisms play an important role because they influence the mineralisation of organic carbon and the humification of organic matter, thanks to which nutrients are more easily absorbed by plants. Organic fertilisers, which are Effective Microorganisms, are produced with the use of living microorganisms, which not only supply the soil with nutrients but also allow the inactive nutrients to be made available. Thanks to the better absorption of nutrients, plants develop and grow better, ensuring the best crops, the purchase prices of which from organic farming are very often much higher than in the case of traditional crops. The aim of this study was to present the possibility of using Effective Microorganisms as an ecological and economical alternative to conventional crop production systems using artificial fertilisers.</p> Anna Piotrowska, Dariusz Boruszko Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The essence of the potential of the agricultural biogas market in Poland – a case study of a biogas plant project <p>In recent years, the development of renewable energy sources has become one of the key demands in the European Union's policy. In Poland, the idea emerged that the energy potential of domestic agriculture may be an opportunity for broader use of the available agricultural biomass. Given that agricultural biogas has long been seen as one of the most promising directions for energy transition, the goal of the article was to assess the potential of the agricultural biogas market in Poland. The research methodology was based on statistical measures related to analysing the structure and changes over time in individual years. The structure analysis was carried out for selected Polish provinces, for which empirical distributions were built and selected descriptive parameters were calculated. A similar study was made in relation to selected EU countries. In addition, according to the National Action Plan for Renewable Energy, at least one agricultural biogas plant should be established in each Polish municipality. On this basis, the article assesses the ecological effect of the project on agricultural biogas in Marcinkowice, in the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship. The presented simulations allowed us to conclude that an agricultural biogas plant can be an ecological potential in the form of reducing the consumption of fossil fuels by reducing emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere while reducing fossil fuel consumption. It was important for the practice to confirm that investing in renewable energy sources, including the use of biogas, is part of the goals and directions of development related to the sustainable management of environmental resources and the development of renewable energy sources.</p> Agnieszka Brelik, Wojciech Lewicki, Milena Bera, Monika Śpiewak-Szyjka Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Impression management in reporting environmental information in groups of the energy, raw materials and fuel sectors. Evidence from Poland <p>Impression management is vital in disclosing non-financial information, including environmental information, in integrated reports. The purpose of the study is to identify and assess the effects of using the impression management strategies in presenting non-financial ecological knowledge in the integrated reports issued by capital groups from the energy, raw materials and fuel sectors, which have had a large share in the degradation of the natural environment for many years. The research was conducted based on two stages: the first stage – as part of the impression management strategy – focused on text analysis to identify the tools for thematic manipulation as well as visual and structural manipulation, and the second stage consisted in analysing the level of text readability using, i.a., FOG and Pisarek indices. The research findings regarding the selected business entities identified as the “polluters” of the natural environment confirm the application of various tools as part of the stakeholder impression management strategies, including manipulation using words, colour, pictures and text.</p> Melania Bąk, Marzena Strojek-Filus Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The impact of the agreement by the Regional Director of Environmental Protection on the decision on environmental dependencies for the implementation of an investment in Poland <p>The purpose of this study is to attempt answering a question about the impact that the agreement reached by the Regional Director for Environmental Protection has on decisions regarding environmental dependencies in Poland. So far, two positions have been expressed in the literature on the subject. According to the first one, such an agreement is binding for the authority issuing the decision. The opponents of such an approach, on the other hand, argue that the administrative body is independent in that respect. The author, although attempting an in-depth analysis of both approaches, is in favour of the first one, additionally taking into account arguments of a juridical, functional and teleological nature. The case study concerned the construction of five buildings for breeding chicken broilers or turkeys along with the accompanying infrastructure on a property located within Solniki, municipality of Zabłudów.</p> Piotr Bołtryk Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Influence of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic on the dynamics of tourism in selected national parks in Poland <p>The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that began in 2020 hit the tourist services sector very hard. This article aims to determine the impact of the coronavirus pandemic and its consequences on the tourism dynamics in nine Polish national parks. The statistical (descriptive) analysis method was used based on data collection regarding the number of tickets sold in parks in 2019 and 2020. Studies have shown that despite health concerns and several restrictions, the number of tourists in all parks, expressed in ticket sales in 2020, only decreased by 0.06%. Polish national parks, which are less popular, recorded increases in visitors by up to 66%, while in gardens with usually high attendance, there were decreases, especially during the spring lockdown. The obtained analyses allow the development of tourist mobility patterns in unique situations.</p> Łukasz Zbucki Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Green human resource management <p>Green human resource management means taking action and shaping and promoting pro-ecological attitudes in the working environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of green Human Resource Management (HRM) and green corporate policies in environmental sustainability. Research in this area was carried out among 346 employees employed in enterprises from various industries in Poland in 2021. An online questionnaire was used in the study. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis; a logistic regression model was applied using the Statistica computer package. The conducted research showed that the employees' awareness of green competencies and the employer's activities in environmental training and education are statistically significant. Still, employers should emphasise the environmental education of employed staff in conjunction with their job position.</p> Izabela Wielewska, Marzena Kacprzak, Agnieszka Król, Artur Czech, Dagmara K. Zuzek, Katarzyna Gralak, Renata Marks-Bielska Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Identification and delimitation of problem areas on the example of the West Pomeranian voivodeship (Poland, EU) <p>In Poland, even though there is already richer literature on the subject of the regional economy, there is still a need for knowledge on various dimensions and aspects of the development of problem areas. The reason for this is to search for ways to boost the country's development, to find new opportunities to activate both growth centres, as well as, and perhaps above all, to activate underdeveloped, backward areas burdened with hidden unemployment in agriculture and to activate those areas which lack features that favour the development of the modern, knowledge-based economy of the 21st century. The key problem addressed in this article is „what criteria should be taken into account when delimiting the problem areas in order for public intervention to be effective and to contribute to the desired changes?”</p> <p>This article presents the method of delimiting problem areas on the example of the “Five Capitals” model. The case study is the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland (EU).</p> Beata Skubiak, Mirosław Broniewicz Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Social attitudes towards electronic waste and the implementation of circular economy principles <p>This article addresses the issue of electro-waste and the role of the consumer of electrical and electronic equipment within the organisation of a circular economy. The aim of the article is (i) to identify the attitudes of the consumers surveyed towards unused electrical and electronic equipment, (ii) to assess the consistency of the attitudes displayed with the principles of the circular economy, and (iii) to identify the most important factors influencing these attitudes. The theoretical part approaches issues such as consumers' subjective perception of electro-waste, the increasing amount of electro-waste globally, and the problems associated with limited recycling opportunities. The conducted study revealed the potential of the surveyed consumers for the organisation of the circular economy in the field of electro-waste management, as well as the risk factors in the form of depositing electro-waste into the municipal waste stream. The analysis also showed a correlation between attitudes towards electro-waste with factors such as age, gender and education. In the concluding part, the most underlying consumer problems related to electro-waste management were systematised; more thorough research was also signalled.</p> Elżbieta Lorek, Paweł Lorek Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Adaptive reuse of buildings <p>The article aims to evaluate criteria that should be considered when deciding on the adaptive reuse of existing buildings. Reusing a building by means of renovation is in line with the concept of sustainability, as it makes it possible to extend the useful life of a building without incurring significant financial expenses. The concept is related to the theory of the circular economy, which maintains that by designing a system of closed-loop processes – in which waste from one process is used as raw material for another – the consumption of raw materials, the amount of waste and energy losses can be minimised. The article discusses criteria that local governments, municipalities, architects, and designers should consider when deciding whether to reuse a building. The criteria were classified as technical, economic, social, spatial and environmental. To achieve the main objective, we looked into the preferences of current and potential practitioners who might be involved in the adaptive reuse of buildings with regard to the criteria. The most significant criteria were validated using a survey method.</p> Elżbieta Broniewicz, Mirosław Broniewicz, Beata Skubiak, Artur Bryliński, Paulina Grabowska Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100