Economics and Environment <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" is an international quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources published in Poland. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the electronic version.</p> <p><strong>e-ISSN </strong>2957-0395, <strong>ISSN </strong>2957-0387</p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p><strong>Impact Factor = 0.4</strong></p> <p><strong>CiteScore (2022) = 0.8</strong></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry; agriculture and horticulture</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance; social and economic geography and spatial management; management and quality studies; law</p> <p><strong>4. The field of science and natural sciences:</strong> biotechnology</p> <p><span style="color: #000000;"><em>Economics and Environment</em> is an<strong> Open Access</strong> journal that allows free unlimited access to its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users. It provides access to its content under the <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. Authors who publish with our journal agree to make the submitted article available under the terms of the above-mentioned <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. </span> </p> <p> </p> en-US <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. 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The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</li> </ul> </div> (Elzbieta Broniewicz, Editor in Chief) (Magis) Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Analysis of Ronald Coase's theorem from the perspective of natural resources management <p>The aim of this article is to consider why the Coase theorem is used so rarely in the field of environmental protection policy and why possible proposals for the implementation of this solution are exposed to harsh criticism. Ronald Coase points out the significant problem of regulatory costs, and his proposal for negotiations may be a panacea for certain over-administration, excessive interventionism, regulatory rigidity or lack of trust in the market mechanism. However, according to the author of this paper, the implementation of the Coase theorem in the most typical and significant areas and problems of environmental policy is either not possible, will encounter enormous difficulties, or is questionable from the point of view of natural resources and social welfare. The reasons for the limitations will be discussed, including undefined or imprecisely defined ownership rights to many environmental resources, the non-market nature of many environmental goods depriving them of a market price, and above all, the chronic asymmetry of the parties that would negotiate with each other on an equal basis.</p> Jerzy Śleszyński Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Tue, 02 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Optimization of consumer decisions and the impact of selected factors on purchasing behavior in polish e-commerce <p>The article aims to present consumer behaviour in the process of purchasing goods and services in online stores in the Polish market. The impact of selected factors determining or discouraging online shopping, as well as influencing the choice of an online store by young consumers representing the "Z" generation, was examined. 100 respondents took part in the pilot study, and women constituted nearly 70% of the surveyed population. Depending on the needs of customers, various factors determine whether they will make purchases online or convince them to choose an online store. Additionally, through the prism of various concerns and their own experiences, they assess factors discouraging online shopping. The results of the analysis can be used in practice when planning an advertising campaign by introducing coordinated and organised activities using one or several different related media. The publication also discusses the impact of online advertising on consumer behaviour in e-commerce, combining an interdisciplinary approach in the areas of management and quality sciences with economics and finance. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2022.</p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> </span></p> Daniel Tokarski, Anita Fajczak-Kowalska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Tue, 02 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Consumers' motives for engaging in second-hand clothing circulation in terms of sustainable consumption <p>An increase in the number of consumers engaging in second-hand clothing (in short, SHC) circulation is indicated as one of the main ways to balance the consumption of clothes. Therefore, the motives of consumers engaging in SHC circulation are an important issue that requires cyclical and in-depth research. This article aimed to examine consumers' motives for engaging in SHC circulation in the context of the implementation of sustainable clothing consumption in selected European countries. In order to accomplish the objective, 547 CAWI questionnaire interviews were conducted with consumers from five countries: Germany, Sweden, Slovenia, Lithuania and Poland. The main motives for engaging in SHC circulation indicated by respondents are directly - the ecological and altruistic motive - and indirectly - the economic motive - linked to the idea of sustainable consumption. At the same time, it should be noted that consumers are guided by several motives simultaneously, and despite pro-environmental declarations, in most cases, they are also guided by economic motives. The study results can be applied to improving waste management systems and, in particular, campaigns promoting SHC circulation.</p> Agnieszka Ciechelska, Marta Kusterka-Jefmańska, Sabina Zaremba-Warnke Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Trends in the livestock and pork market in Poland with regard to the environmental impact of this production direction <p>After joining the European Union, the market economy continued to drive structural changes in meat production and processing. Unfortunately, the functioning of meat markets was impacted by several threats with significant adverse influence. Phenomena such as the spread of ASF disease, the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union or the Covid-19 epidemic added instability to the already cyclical pork market. The study aims to evaluate the functioning of Poland’s pork market and to identify the main trend in this market. Livestock and pork meat production in Poland form a significant economic sector; however, it creates considerable environmental challenges. The study focuses on key aspects such as greenhouse gas emissions, water usage, feed consumption, and waste management. The study covers the years 2004-2021, i.e., the period of seventeen years after Poland's accession to the European Union. The statistical data analysis methods showed four to three-year cycles in pork live stock with a decreasing amplitude over time and high and relatively stable domestic demand for pork. This provides a favourable foundation for future production direction. However, the systematic changes in the structure of meat consumption and price development led to a steady increase in the share of poultry meat at the expense of pork and bovine during the observed year span.</p> Anna Olszańska, Anna Sylwia Kowalska, Joanna Szymańska, Klaudia Paskudzka, Ivan Soukal Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 The implementation of the “Clear air” Programme in Poland including voivodeships <p>Air pollution is a global problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Climate warming, increasingly difficult access to drinking water resources, and desertification of areas have all resulted in population migrations in search of better areas to live and work. High mortality rates due to smog and crop, soil, and water pollution are just some of the problems facing the whole civilised world. In 2019, in response to these and other climate challenges, the EU adopted the Green Deal, a strategy whereby the EU member states have committed to an energy transition. Climate neutrality, according to the document, should be achieved by 2050. From 2018 to 2029, the government program “Clean Air” will be implemented in Poland with the aim of reducing environmentally damaging emissions from heating single-family houses with harmful fuel in old and polluting stoves. The article presents the program's assumptions in relation to the priorities of the European Green Deal and statistical data concerning the replacement of boilers under the “Clean Air” program by province, the use of various heat sources in Poland, as well as the demand for each heat source based on the number of applications submitted. The paper highlights two aspects related to the functioning of the “Clean Air” program, the first of which is economic in character and pertains to heat source replacement costs, whilst the second concerns the management of renewable energy sources. Statistical data referred to in this article were finalised as of December 2022.</p> Dariusz Rajchel, Anna Rajchel Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Conditions and possibilities of using e-logistics in manufacturing enterprises <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Progressing globalisation, competitiveness and implemented technological innovations constitute important challenges for enterprises operating in such a turbulent environment. Organisations are forced to adapt much faster and more flexibly to rapidly changing market conditions. Manufacturing companies realise that it is impossible to meet market requirements by constantly using conventional methods of operation, especially in the sphere of physical flows of goods, information and financial resources, for which logistics is responsible. One of the solutions that can support manufacturing companies is e-logistics, which enriches logistics phases and processes in the sphere of information technology (IT) and information and communication technologies (ICT). The aim of the study is to identify the conditions and possibilities of using e-logistics in Polish manufacturing enterprises.<br /></span></p> Daniel Tokarski, Maciej Bielecki Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Heating and cooling degree-days vs climate change in years 1979-2021. Evidence from the European Union and Norway <p>Energy consumption depends strongly on weather conditions. Thus, to formulate energy-related policy goals, it is crucial to monitor changes related to the heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD) – widely applied indicators of climate change. The study investigated the impact that climate change (global warming) exerted on the number of HDD and CDD, as well as the weather-related final energy consumption of the European households (EU-27 and Norway), based on data derived from Eurostat for the period 1979-2021. The results indicate that the changes in HDD and CDD constituted non-linear functions of the country’s average temperature, with the largest percentage changes observed in the warmest (in the case of HDD) and the coldest (in the case of CDD) portion of European countries. As indicated by estimations based on first-difference linear regression models, climate change has contributed so far to the net decrease in weather-related energy consumption of households.</p> Sylwia Pangsy-Kania, Justyna Biegańska, Floros Flouros, Aneta Sokół Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Microbiology of post-fermentation leachate <p>Using post-fermentation leachate as fertilizer is a good alternative and solution to the problem of waste at wastewater treatment plants and contains the principles of sustainable development. Leachate from anaerobic treatment of sewage sludge contains valuable elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, which can improve soil properties. The production of liquid fertilizer minimizes the negative impact of leachate on the main biological stream in the WWTP and improves the energy efficiency of the entire wastewater treatment system. This transfers into the operating costs of the facility. When thinking about the agricultural use of digestion leachate and its introduction into the environment, a very important issue is its microbiological contamination. The purpose of the conducted research was to determine the microbiological quality of digestion leachates from municipal wastewater treatment plants and to determine the parameters of their hygienization. The number of bacteria in raw leachate is indicative of a sanitary risk in the case they are used in agriculture as fertiliser. Heating the leachate at 60°C for 15 minutes produces an effect comparable to that achieved by heating the leachate to 70°C. The sonication process itself did not affect the better temperature effect. Heating the leachate for 20 minutes after prior sonication for 20 minutes does not result in the complete elimination of microflora.</p> Justyna Zamorska, Monika Zdeb, Andżelika Domoń, Adam Masłoń Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 10 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The effect of natural resources and foreign direct investment on economic growth <p>The proposed research aims to examine The Impact of Natural Resources and Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Algeria during the period 1970-2021 and compare it with the Saudi economy, which is considered the closest economy in terms of natural resources. Analyse the factors influencing economic diversification and innovation. The research seeks to understand the impact of natural resources, including oil and gas, on the Algerian economy and study the factors influencing sustainable development and economic diversification. This research employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. The findings suggest that, in total, there is The Impact of Natural Resources and Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Algeria during the period 1970-2021. The positive correlation between resources and economic growth highlights resource extraction's role in Algeria's economic development. It underscores the need for diversification to reduce dependence on commodity markets. The research focuses solely on economic factors, neglecting social and political dynamics. Limited data availability may constrain the depth of analysis, potentially overlooking nuances in the relationship between natural resources, FDI, and economic growth. The findings offer insights for Algerian policymakers to develop strategies for sustainable economic growth, emphasising the need for diversification beyond natural resources. Recommendations may inform policy decisions aimed at fostering innovation, reducing dependency on volatile resource sectors, and promoting environmental sustainability.</p> Fouad Mahfoudi, Siham Riache, Bilal Louail Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Thu, 28 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Exposure to the ESG risk of the Polish banking sector <p>The main aim of the article is to explore changes taking place in ESG risk management in the Polish banking sector. The following research methods were used: in-depth literature studies, desk research methods, questionnaire survey methods, case study analyses, and observation and synthesis methods. The article verified the adopted research hypothesis, stating that knowledge and awareness of the importance of ESG risk in commercial banks in Poland increased, which is reflected in practical activities related to their bank risk management systems. The research that was conducted showed that Polish banks are increasingly aware of the ESG risk and the need for their inclusion in risk management processes. This inclusion takes place through various channels. However, an important aspect of this system is the assessment of banks' exposure to ESG risk. Commercial banks in Poland use mainly qualitative methods, although they also recognise quantitative ones to measure the scale of ESG risk taken.</p> Irena Pyka, Aleksandra Nocoń Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Environmental disclosures according to ESRS in ESG reporting of selected banks in Poland <p>The aim of this article is to analyze the environmental disclosures of non-financial information presented in the selected Polish banks in terms of meeting the European Sustainability Reporting Standards (ESRS) guidelines. The ESRS reporting standards, adopted by the European Commission in July 2023, not only introduced an increase in the scope of reporting but also clearly defined the information to be disclosed in reports that banks are obligated to submit. The research method used was a critical analysis of the subject-matter literature, and, in the empirical part, a method of analyzing information posted on bank websites was assumed. Among the analyzed entities, 23 banks operating in Poland, functioning in the form of joint-stock companies, were taken into consideration. Research has shown that the required data is contained in various documents published by banks, and their availability on websites is relatively low. The scope of environmental disclosures was assessed as insufficient in relation to the ESRS guidelines. The highest number of disclosures occurred in the “Climate” area and the lowest in the “Biodiversity and Ecosystems” area, which may stem from the specificity of the banks' activities. The conducted research revealed that banks were inadequately prepared for reporting that takes into account ESRS guidelines.</p> Elżbieta Broniewicz, Ewa Jastrzębska, Agata Lulewicz-Sas Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Mon, 08 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Economic and environmental analyses of the construction of on-site, large-scale photovoltaic farms <p>This paper addresses the construction of large-scale photovoltaic farms. The paper describes the issues of the current overconsumption of energy from traditional sources and the associated overuse of fossil fuels. Alternatives to these processes are presented based on literature sources, and the use of renewable energy sources, focusing on solar energy, is recommended here. In the research section, attention was focused on the economic and environmental aspects of ventures involving the construction of large-scale farms by manufacturing companies with high monthly energy consumption. In the first stage of the work, economic analyses were carried out based on data obtained from photovoltaic installation companies. For the simulation, an assessment of the costs and benefits of building a photovoltaic farm for a steel construction company located in eastern Poland was used. Another element of the research part of the study was an analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey, which was conducted among people living in the vicinity of such farms. On this basis, the environmental impact of neighbouring areas of this type of investment was estimated. Positive conclusions from the analyses made it possible to recommend the construction of this type of facility, especially for manufacturing plants with high electricity consumption.</p> Bartosz Zegardlo, Natalia Pogonowska, Antoni Bombik Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Determinants of electromobility development from the perspective of a zero emission, innovative and resilient economy <p>The aim of this article is to identify the critical factors and assess the specific actions conditioning the development of electromobility from the perspective of a zero-carbon, innovative and resilient economy. These issues have a particular dimension in relation to individual mobility. The study used a combination of primary and secondary data, using various research methods and techniques, such as descriptive analysis, desk research, diagnostic survey, cause-and-effect analysis and statistical analysis. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in managerial positions. The literature review and the results of our own research confirmed the importance of the identified factors in the uptake of electric cars. At the same time, the study highlighted the high complexity of problems regarding investment decisions determining the development of electromobility. Taking active steps to increase the level of sustainability and resilience of the electromobility system should first focus on further development of charging infrastructure, uptake of electric vehicles, development of renewable energy sources and creation of an electric vehicle battery value chain. The main expectations for the development of electromobility are to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, reduce dependence on fossil fuel supplies, increase the competitiveness and innovation of the economy and reduce external costs generated by transport. Attempts were made to achieve the originality of the research carried out through its measurable nature. The proposed electromobility development model may contribute to the improvement of decision-making tools regarding the allocation of public funds and other sources for investments so that they contribute to the sustainable development of mobility systems.</p> Urszula Motowidlak, Agnieszka Bukowska-Piestrzyńska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Tue, 02 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Evaluation of the effect of using sewage sludge as a fertilizer on the concentration of heavy metals in soil and the economic implications of its application <p>The costs of fertilising the soil with sewage sludge were reduced to the operating time of the equipment and the working time of the labourers operating the equipment in the two main operations (manure spreading and ploughing), for three sewage sludge application doses, namely 50, 100 and 200 Mg·ha<sup>-1</sup>. The costs were calculated using the Katalog Nakładów Rzeczowych nr 2-21: Tereny zielone/Ministerstwo Gospodarki Przestrzennej i Budownictwa (2009) and the current prices from Sekocendbud (2023). The effectiveness of fertilisation was assessed by studying the level and change in heavy metal content after the soil was fertilised with sewage sludge at three proportional doses, namely 50, 100 and 200 Mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>. The sewage sludge used for fertilisation complied with the sanitary requirements for sludge to be utilised for natural purposes (Regulation, 2015). The estimated total cost of sludge application ranged from PLN 12646.19 to PLN 20456.73 per 1 ha for doses from 50 to 200 Mg per 1 ha. The results of the estimation confirmed the hypothesis that the unit cost of fertilisation with stabilised sewage sludge increases with the dose of sludge in relation to the area of fertilised soil and decreases with the increase of the mass of sludge deposited in the soil. Optimising fertiliser costs, therefore, requires selection - increasing the sludge dose per unit area. No contamination of the soil with copper, cadmium, lead and zinc was found despite an obvious increase in the content of these metals when mixed into the soil. The application of sewage sludge, even in multiple doses, did not result in exceeding the permissible limit for the content of these elements in the soil, as defined in the Minister of the Environment Regulation of 2015 (Regulation, 2015).</p> Agnieszka Petryk, Marek Ryczek, Sylwia Guzdek Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Tue, 16 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Evaluating the landfill leachate quality using leachate pollution index (LPI) and technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) <p>Variability and diversity of landfill leachate cause difficulties in assessing the actual degree of threat to the environment and selecting an appropriate method of disposal or treatment. Therefore, quantifying leachate contamination potential is essential in landfill management and could be used to assess the accuracy of landfill operation and its impact on surrounding areas. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the performance of the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method and its suitability in determining leachate pollution potential in comparison to the Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) method. For this purpose, the quality of leachate from the landfill, collected four times a year from 2004 to 2021, was analysed. The following parameters were monitored: pH, EC, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Hg. On the basis of the measured parameters, the LPI and TOPSIS indexes were calculated. The obtained results indicated that the TOPSIS method is more sensitive and accurate in observing changes in leachate quality. It can be applied to any number of contaminant parameters without restrictions on scope, quantity, or their relative importance. It can also be used to compare the variations in leachate quality over time or to analyse differences in leachate quality among various landfill sites.</p> Izabela Anna Tałałaj, Sławomira Hajduk Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Broiler production from the perspective of emergy analysis - environmental impact scenarios <p>Poultry meat consumption is a significant element in Poland's overall food consumption. Economic considerations mean that both nationally and globally, conventional intensive rearing dominates. Nevertheless, environmental and health aspects or the will to treat animals humanely make pro-environmental rearing systems increasingly common. The purpose of this article is an environmental analysis of an example farm engaged in intensive rearing of slaughtered poultry (so-called baseline production). For the analysed production, the following scenarios of changes were proposed: (a) conventional rearing based on the use of own fodder, and (b) organic rearing using free range and own organic fodder. An emergy approach was applied in this analysis. Comparison of different production systems using emergy analysis made it possible to show the scale of environmental resource commitment for baseline and scenario-based productions, and to determine the amount of renewable and non-renewable emergy consumed per unit of production. Through the use of selected emergy indicators, e.g.: Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), the environmental impact for each case was determined. For the ecological system scenario, the need to change production parameters (stocking rate, maximum poultry house area, free range) was taken into account. The results of the emergy-based indicators showed that the baseline production places the greatest burden on the environment and is the least sustainable. The organic system is the opposite; however, due to production limitations and the lower production efficiency achieved, it may not be economically viable to orient a farm exclusively to the organic system. In an environmental assessment, the information obtained can provide valuable guidance to agricultural producers. They can help make informed decisions on natural resource management to achieve environmental security. The results are also important for political decision-makers in creating policies for more sustainable agricultural production. The results obtained are discussed, pointing out the importance of the analysis used mainly from an environmental point of view.</p> ANNA KUCZUK, JANUSZ POSPOLITA Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Development of the tourism function of rural areas of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship in 2010 and 2020 <p>Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship is a characteristic region of Poland due to its natural conditions, which means that the economy is primarily agricultural and touristic. One of the main, innovative directions of non-agricultural activities supported in the rural areas of the region is rural tourism together, implemented as part of the smart specialisation "Water economy". Analysis of 19 selected indicators of tourism, tourism development and potential, as well as technical infrastructure and finances of communes, showed that in 2010 of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship, the level of development of the tourism function of the rural areas was characterised by an average value of the synthetic Hellwig measure (0.13) and showed strong spatial heterogeneity. In 2020, under conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic, this measure decreased only slightly to a value of 0.11, primarily due to the continuation of the region's tourism development planned for the long term. The spatial arrangement of the development of the tourism function in the analysed years remained virtually unchanged. The highest values for the development of the tourism function, both in 2010 and in 2020, were recorded in municipalities located in the area of the Great Mazurian Lakes, Powiśle and the other lake districts of the region.</p> Zbigniew Brodziński, Konrad Turkowski Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Concept of pocket gardens on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology as a result of a survey of the academic community <p>Green areas of university campuses are an important resource for them, performing a variety of functions important for the functioning of the university, the well-being of the academic community, the environment and the green system of the city. The purpose of this study was to determine the preferences of the academic community, with particular emphasis on students, as to the functionality that campus green spaces should fulfil today. The methodology of the research work included a diagnostic survey method, the technique of which was surveying, and the tool was a survey questionnaire. Analysis of the results of a survey conducted among students at the Bialystok University of Technology (Bialystok, Poland) made it possible to determine the needs and expectations regarding the development of campus green areas. The concept of pocket gardens accommodates responses and solutions to students' expectations. The analysis of the student community's opinions served to implement the tasks of the "My Green Polytechnic" strategy conducted on the Bialystok University of Technology campus. The results of the survey and the experience of its implementation can be useful to various institutions in making decisions on green space management.</p> Dorota Gawryluk, Izabela Biała, Magda Gawrychowska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Fri, 22 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Counteracting climate change in the context of implementing sustainable development in economic and social aspects <p>The aim of the article is to present the current state of knowledge about climate change, the causes of these changes, and potential effects, both environmental, economic, and social. To achieve the formulated goal, the author attempts to interpret original research results in the area of climate change, as well as actions taken (at various levels) in the field of climate policy. This is intended to answer the question of whether the idea of sustainable development at the social and economic level is realistic in the context of climate policy. In the ongoing debate, the problem of adaptation to climate change has given way to the problem of pollutant emissions, and the available scientific knowledge is insufficient to predict what changes the climate will undergo in the coming decades and what impact humans will have on these changes. Based on the analyses carried out, the author of the article concludes that emphasis should be placed on solutions that support human well-being and minimise losses. Environmental protection, if it is to remain a science, must take responsibility for the entire environment, including human well-being, and cannot be done at the expense of human beings because it destroys the natural social order. The article verifies the following hypothesis: decisions made in the field of climate policy are insufficiently justified by scientific research, which provides irrefutable facts.</p> Beata Skubiak, Mirosław Broniewicz, Paulina Grabowska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment Mon, 08 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200