Barriers influencing purchase behaviour of green personal care products – integrating innovation resistance theory perspective and stages of change model


innovation resistance theory
stages of change model
green consumption barriers
green personal care products

How to Cite

Szaban, M., & Stefańska, M. (2023). Barriers influencing purchase behaviour of green personal care products – integrating innovation resistance theory perspective and stages of change model . Economics and Environment, 85(2), 420-455.


The study aimed to identify and explain perceived barriers to green consumption at different stages of behaviour change by integrating the Innovation Resistance Theory (IRT) and Stages of Behavioural Change (SOC) model. Through 20 in-depth interviews with consumers transitioning to green consumption at various stages, several barriers were identified. The knowledge barrier played a crucial role in shaping the adaptation process at every stage of change and was recognized as an independent construct within the IRT framework. Moreover, the research revealed that barriers such as tradition, value, usage, and risk exerted a stronger inhibitory effect in the early stages of green consumption, while knowledge and image barriers evolved and had a distinct impact as consumers progressed through the stages. The study also highlighted triggers that positively stimulated green consumption. These findings have implications for green marketing and can guide targeted interventions to promote sustainable consumption more effectively.



Ahn, Y., & Kim, K. W. (2012). Beliefs Regarding Vegetable Consumption, Self-Efficacy and Eating Behaviors according to the Stages of Change in Vegetable Consumption among College Students. KJCN, 17(1), 1-13.

Alsmadi, S. (2007). Green Marketing and the Concern over the Environment: Measuring Environmental Consciousness of Jordanian Consumers. Journal of Promotion Management, 13(3-4), 339-361.

Amberg, N., & Fogarassy, C. (2019). Green Consumer Behavior in the Cosmetics Market. Resources, 8(3), 137.

Antioco, M., & Kleijnen, M. (2010). Consumer adoption of technological innovations Effects of psychological and functional barriers in a lack of content versus a presence of content situation. European Journal of Marketing, 44(11-12), 1700-1724.

Arnaudova, M., Brunner, T. A., & Götze, F. (2022). Examination of students' willingness to change behaviour regarding meat consumption. Meat Science, 184, 108695.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bänsch, A. (1990). Marketingfolgerungen aus Gründen für den Nichtkauf umweltfreundlicher Konsumgüter. Jahrbuch der Absatz-und Verbrauchsforschung, 4, 360-379.

Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2022). Business research methods. Sixth Edition. Oxford UniversityPress.

Botonaki, A., Polymeros, K., Tsakiridou, E., & Mattas, K. (2006). The role of food quality certification on consumers' food choices. British Food Journal, 108(2), 77-90.

Bridle, C., Riemsma, R. P., Pattenden, J., Sowden, A. J., Mather, L., Watt, I. S., & Walker, A. (2005). Systematic review of the effectiveness of health behavior interventions based on the transtheoretical model. Psychology & Health, 20(3), 283-301.

Bryła, P. (2016). Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers. Appetite, 105, 737-746.

Bryła, P. (2018). Organic food online shopping in Poland. British Food Journal, 120(5), 1015-1027.

Buder, F., Feldmann, C., & Hamm, U. (2014). Why regular buyers of organic food still buy many conventional products: product-specific purchase barriers for organic food consumers. British Food Journal, 116(3), 390-404.

Burmann, C., Schaefer, K., & Maloney, P. (2008). Industry image: Its impact on the brand image of potential employees. Journal of Brand Management, 15(3), 157-176.

Cervellon, M.-C., & Carey, L. (2020). Consumers’ Perceptions of ‘Green’. In M. Barnard (Ed.), Fashion Theory (pp. 161-176). Routledge.

Chen, K., & Deng, T. (2016). Research on the Green Purchase Intentions from the Perspective of Product Knowledge. Sustainability, 8(9), 943.

Chung, K. C., & Liang, S. W.-J. (2020). Understanding Factors Affecting Innovation Resistance of Mobile Payments in Taiwan: An Integrative Perspective. Mathematics, 8(10), 1841.

Chwialkowska, A., & Flicinska-Turkiewicz, J. (2021). Overcoming perceived sacrifice as a barrier to the adoption of green non-purchase behaviours. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(2), 205-220.

Connell, K. Y. H. (2010). Internal and external barriers to eco-conscious apparel acquisition. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34(3), 279-286.

Cornescu, V., & Adam, C.-R. (2013). The Consumer Resistance Behavior towards Innovation. Procedia Economics and Finance, 6, 457-465.

Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. SAGE Publications.

Cunha, D. B., de Souza Bda, S., da Veiga, G. V., Pereira, R. A., & Sichieri, R. (2015). Readiness for behavioral change and variation in food consumption among adolescents from a school-based community trial in Duque de Caxias, RJ. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 18(3), 655-665.

Damaskinidis, G. (2017). Qualitative Research and Subjective Impressions in Educational Contexts. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(12), 1228-1233.

D'Attoma, I., & Ieva, M. (2020). Determinants of technological innovation success and failure: Does marketing innovation matter? Industrial Marketing Management, 91, 64-81.

Davvetas, V., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2016). How Product Category Shapes Preferences toward Global and Local Brands: A Schema Theory Perspective. Journal of International Marketing, 24(4), 61-81.

Dearing, A. (2000). Sustainable innovation: Drivers and barriers. Innovation and the Environment, 103-125.

Diepenmaat, H., Kemp, R., & Velter, M. (2020). Why Sustainable Development Requires Societal Innovation and Cannot Be Achieved without This. Sustainability, 12(3), 1270.

ElHaffar, G., Durif, F., & Dube, L. (2020). Towards closing the attitude-intention-behavior gap in green consumption: A narrative review of the literature and an overview of future research directions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 275, 122556.

Eze, U. C., & Ndubisi, N. O. (2013). Green Buyer Behavior: Evidence from Asia Consumers. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 48(4), 413-426.

Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. (2008). Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Forward, S. E. (2014). Exploring people's willingness to bike using a combination of the theory of planned behavioural and the transtheoretical model. European Review of Applied Psychology, 64(3), 151-159.

Fudge, S., & Peters, M. (2011). Behaviour Change in the UK Climate Debate: An Assessment of Responsibility, Agency and Political Dimensions. Sustainability, 3(6), 789-808.

Fujii, Y., Harada, K. H., & Koizumi, A. (2013). Occurrence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in personal care products and compounding agents. Chemosphere, 93(3), 538-544.

Gatersleben, B., & Appleton, K. M. (2007). Contemplating cycling to work: Attitudes and perceptions in different stages of change. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41(4), 302-312.

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction.

Gleim, M. R., Smith, J. S., Andrews, D., & Cronin, J. J. (2013). Against the Green: A Multi-method Examination of the Barriers to Green Consumption. Journal of Retailing, 89(1), 44-61.

Gonzalez-Arcos, C., Joubert, A. M., Scaraboto, D., Guesalaga, R., & Sandberg, J. (2021). “How Do I Carry All This Now?” Understanding Consumer Resistance to Sustainability Interventions. Journal of Marketing, 85(3), 44-61.

Goyal, N., & Jerold, F. (2021). Biocosmetics: technological advances and future outlook. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30, 25148-25169.

Gwozdz, W., Reisch, L. A., & Thøgersen, J. (2020). Behaviour Change for Sustainable Consumption. Journal of Consumer Policy, 43(2), 249-253.

Herbig, P. A., & Day, R. L. (1992). Customer Acceptance: The Key to Successful Introductions of Innovations. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 10(1), 4-15.

Herrick, A. B., Stone, W. J., & Mettler, M. M. (1997). Stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy across four health behaviors in a worksite environment. Am J Health Promot, 12(1), 49-56.

Hsu, C. L., Chang, C. Y., & Yansritakul, C. (2017). Exploring purchase intention of green skincare products using the theory of planned behavior: Testing the moderating effects of country of origin and price sensitivity. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 34, 145-152.

Jacob, S. L., Cornell, E., Kwa, M., Funk, W. E., & Xu, S. (2018). Cosmetics and Cancer: Adverse Event Reports Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. JNCI Cancer Spectr, 2(2), pky012.

Jacobs, K., Petersen, L., Hörisch, J., & Battenfeld, D. (2018). Green thinking but thoughtless buying? An empirical extension of the value-attitude-behaviour hierarchy in sustainable clothing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 203, 1155-1169.

Jaeger-Erben, M., Rückert-John, J., & Schäfer, M. (2015). Sustainable consumption through social innovation: a typology of innovations for sustainable consumption practices. Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, 784-798.

Joshi, Y., & Rahman, Z. (2015). Factors Affecting Green Purchase Behaviour and Future Research Directions. International Strategic Management Review, 3(1), 128-143.

Kao, T.-F., & Du, Y.-Z. (2020). A study on the influence of green advertising design and environmental emotion on advertising effect. Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, 118294.

Kaur, P., Dhir, A., Ray, A., Bala, P. K., & Khalil, A. (2021). Innovation resistance theory perspective on the use of food delivery applications. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 34(6), 1746-1768.

Keller, K. L., & Staelin, R. (1987). Effects of Quality and Quantity of Information on Decision Effectiveness. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(2), 200-213.

Kemper, J. A., & Ballantine, P. W. (2019). What do we mean by sustainability marketing? Journal of Marketing Management, 35(3-4), 277-309.

Khan, M. A. S., Du, J., Malik, H. A., Anuar, M. M., Pradana, M., & Yaacob, M. R. B. (2022). Green innovation practices and consumer resistance to green innovation products: Moderating role of environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 7(4), 100280.

Klaschka, U. (2016). Are natural compounds used in personal care products toxic for the aquatic environment? Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 4, 13-20.

Klöckner, C. A., & Ofstad, S. P. (2017). Tailored information helps people progress towards reducing their beef consumption. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 50, 24-36.

Klostermann, J. E., & Tukker, A. (1998). Product innovation and eco-efficiency: twenty-three industry efforts to reach the Factor 4. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Koniecki, D., Wang, R., Moody, R. P., & Zhu, J. (2011). Phthalates in cosmetic and personal care products: concentrations and possible dermal exposure. Environ Res, 111(3), 329-336.

Kuisma, T., Laukkanen, T., & Hiltunen, M. (2007). ‘Mapping the Reasons for Resistance to Internet Banking: A Means-End Approach’. International Journal of Information Management, 27, 75-85.

Kumar, P., Polonsky, M., Dwivedi, Y. K., & Kar, A. (2021). Green information quality and green brand evaluation: the moderating effects of eco-label credibility and consumer knowledge. European Journal of Marketing, 55(7), 2037-2071.

Kushwah, S., Dhir, A., Sagar, M., & Gupta, B. (2019). Determinants of organic food consumption. A systematic literature review on motives and barriers. Appetite, 143, 104402.

Kwatra, S., Pandey, S., & Sharma, S. (2014). Understanding public knowledge and awareness on e-waste in an urban setting in India. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 25(6), 752-765.

Lacey, S. J., & Street, T. D. (2017). Measuring healthy behaviours using the stages of change model: an investigation into the physical activity and nutrition behaviours of Australian miners. Biopsychosocial Medicine, 11, 30.

Laukkanen, T. (2016). Consumer adoption versus rejection decisions in seemingly similar service innovations: The case of the Internet and mobile banking. Journal of Business Research, 69(7), 2432-2439.

Laukkanen, T., Sinkkonen, S., Kivijärvi, M., & Laukkanen, P. (2007). Innovation resistance among mature consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24(7), 419-427.

Lin, Y., Yang, S., Hanifah, H., & Iqbal, Q. (2018). An Exploratory Study of Consumer Attitudes toward Green Cosmetics in the UK Market. Administrative Sciences, 8(4), 71.

Liobikienė, G., & Bernatonienė, J. (2017). Why determinants of green purchase cannot be treated equally? The case of green cosmetics: Literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, 109-120.

Liu, X., Wang, C., Shishime, T., & Fujitsuka, T. (2012). Sustainable consumption: Green purchasing behaviours of urban residents in China. Sustainable Development, 20(4), 293-308.

Lundqvist, A., Liljander, V., Gummerus, J., & van Riel, A. (2013). The impact of storytelling on the consumer brand experience: The case of a firm-originated story. Journal of Brand Management, 20, 283-297.

Ma, L., & Lee, C. S. (2019). Understanding the Barriers to the Use of MOOCs in a Developing Country: An Innovation Resistance Perspective. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(3), 571-590.

Mani, Z., & Chouk, I. (2018). Consumer Resistance to Innovation in Services: Challenges and Barriers in the Internet of Things Era. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 35(5), 780-807.

McDonald, S., Oates, C., Thyne, M., Alevizou, P., & McMorland, L. A. (2009). Comparing sustainable consumption patterns across product sectors. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33(2), 137-145.

Md Yusop, N. B., Mohd Shariff, Z., Hwu, T. T., Abd Talib, R., & Spurrier, N. (2018). The effectiveness of a stage-based lifestyle modification intervention for obese children. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 299.

Melander, L. (2017). Achieving Sustainable Development by Collaborating in Green Product Innovation. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(8), 1095-1109.

Migheli, M. (2021). Green purchasing: the effect of parenthood and gender. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(7), 10576-10600.

Moloney, S., & Strengers, Y. (2014). ‘Going Green’?: The Limitations of Behaviour Change Programmes as a Policy Response to Escalating Resource Consumption. Environmental Policy and Governance, 24(2), 94-107.

Moscato, E. M., & Machin, J. E. (2018). Mother natural: Motivations and associations for consuming natural foods. Appetite, 121, 18-28.

Mouloudj, K., & Bouarar, A. C. (2021). ‬The Impact of Word of Mouth on Intention to Purchase Green Products: An Empirical Study. Revue Algérienne d’Economie et gestion, 15(1), 871-890.

Nelson, B., Taylor, D., & Strick, S. (2009). Wine consumers’ environmental knowledge and attitudes: Influence on willingness to purchase. International Journal of Wine Research, 1, 59-72.

Nguyen, H. V., Nguyen, C. H., & Hoang, T. T. B. (2019). Green consumption: Closing the intention-behavior gap. Sustainable Development, 27(1), 118-129.

Niedermeier, A., Emberger-Klein, A., & Menrad, K. (2021a). Drivers and barriers for purchasing green Fast-Moving Consumer Goods: A study of consumer preferences of glue sticks in Germany. Journal of Cleaner Production, 284, 124804.

Niedermeier, A., Emberger-Klein, A., & Menrad, K. (2021b). Which factors distinguish the different consumer segments of green fast-moving consumer goods in Germany? Business Strategy and the Environment, 30(4), 1823-1838.

Olejnik, I., & Stefańska, M. (2022). Dobór próby i analiza wyników w badaniach jakościowych. In M. Rószkiewicz, K. Mazurek – Łopacińska & A. Sagan (Eds.), Dobór próby we współczesnych badaniach marketingowych. Podejścia ilościowe, jakościowe i mieszane (pp. 59-74). Szczecin: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. (in Polish).

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. Adm Policy Ment Health, 42(5), 533-544.

Phills, J., Deiglmeier, K., & Miller, D. (2008). Rediscovering Social Innovation. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 6.

Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: theory, research & practice, 19(3), 276.

Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47(9), 1102-1114.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., DiClemente, C. C., & Fava, J. (1988). Measuring processes of change: Applications to the cessation of smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 520-528.

Ram, S. (1987). A model of innovation resistance. ACR North American Advances, 14, 208-212.

Ram, S., & Sheth, J. N. (1989). Consumer Resistance to Innovations: The Marketing Problem and its solutions. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(2), 5-14.

Ramayah, T., Lee, J. W. C., & Mohamad, O. (2010). Green product purchase intention: Some insights from a developing country. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(12), 1419-1427.

Reinhardt, R., Hietschold, N., & Gurtner, S. (2019). Overcoming consumer resistance to innovations – an analysis of adoption triggers. R&D Management, 49(2), 139-154.

Romain, A. J., Caudroit, J., Hokayem, M., & Bernard, P. (2018). Is there something beyond stages of change in the transtheoretical model? The state of art for physical activity. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 50, 42-53.

Sadiq, M., Adil, M., & Paul, J. (2021). An innovation resistance theory perspective on purchase of eco-friendly cosmetics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 59, 102369.

Safari, A., Salehzadeh, R., Panahi, R., & Abolghasemian, S. (2020). Multiple pathways linking environmental knowledge and awareness to employees’ green behavior. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 18(1), 81-103.

Sandler, R. (2012). Environmental Ethics, Overview. In R. Chadwick (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition) (pp. 105-113). Academic Press.

Santos, A. A. dos, & Ponchio, M. C. (2021). Functional, psychological and emotional barriers and the resistance to the use of digital banking services. Innovation & Management Review, 18(3), 331-348.

Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., Baker, S., Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B., Burroughs, H., & Jinks, C. (2018). Saturation in qualitative research: exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Qual Quant, 52(4), 1893-1907.

Schlegelmilch, B. B., Bohlen, G. M., & Diamantopoulos, A. (1996). The link between green purchasing decisions and measures of environmental consciousness. European Journal of Marketing, 30, 35-55.

Segan, C. J., Borland, R., & Greenwood, K. M. (2006). Can transtheoretical model measures predict relapse from the action stage of change among ex-smokers who quit after calling a quitline? Addict Behav, 31(3), 414-428.

Spiggle, S. (1994). Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 491-503.

Steinemann, A. (2017). Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products. Preventive Medicine Reports, 5, 45-47.

Steinemann, A. (2018). Fragranced consumer products: sources of emissions, exposures, and health effects in the UK. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 11(3), 253-258.

Talke, K., & Heidenreich, S. (2014). How to Overcome Pro-Change Bias: Incorporating Passive and Active Innovation Resistance in Innovation Decision Models. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(5), 894-907.

Talwar, S., Dhir, A., Scuotto, V., & Kaur, P. (2021). Barriers and paradoxical recommendation behaviour in online to offline (O2O) services. A convergent mixed-method study. Journal of Business Research, 131, 25-39.

Tan, L. P., Johnstone, M.-L., & Yang, L. (2016). Barriers to green consumption behaviours: The roles of consumers' green perceptions. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 24(4), 288-299.

Teng, H.-L., Yen, M., Fetzer, S., Sung, J.-M., & Hung, S.-Y. (2021). Tailoring Health-promoting Programs for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 43(2), 138-150.

Tezer, A., & Bodur, H. O. (2019). The Greenconsumption Effect: How Using Green Products Improves Consumption Experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 47(1), 25-39.

UN. (2015). Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Varadarajan, R. (2017). Innovating for sustainability: a framework for sustainable innovations and a model of sustainable innovations orientation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(1), 14-36.

Verplanken, B., & Orbell, S. (2022). Attitudes, Habits, and Behavior Change. Annual Review of Psychology, 73(1), 327-352.

Vila Franca, C. C., & Ueno, H. M. (2020). Green cosmetics: perspectives and challenges in the context of green chemistry. Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente, 53, 133-150.

Wang, H., Ma, B., & Bai, R. (2019). How Does Green Product Knowledge Effectively Promote Green Purchase Intention? Sustainability, 11(4), 1193.

Wiederhold, M., & Martinez, L. F. (2018). Ethical consumer behaviour in Germany: The attitude-behaviour gap in the green apparel industry. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 42(4), 419-429.

Willig, C., & Stainton Rogers, W. (2017). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Xie, B., Wang, L., Yang, H., Wang, Y., & Zhang, M. (2015). Consumer perceptions and attitudes of organic food products in Eastern China. British Food Journal, 117(3), 1105-1121.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Economics and Environment


Download data is not yet available.