Determinants of electromobility development from the perspective of a zero emission, innovative and resilient economy
PDF

Keywords

zero-emission economy,
sustainable transport
zero-emission mobility
electromobility
electric vehicles

How to Cite

Motowidlak, Urszula, and Agnieszka Bukowska-Piestrzyńska. 2024. “Determinants of Electromobility Development from the Perspective of a Zero Emission, Innovative and Resilient Economy”. Economics and Environment 88 (1): 732. https://doi.org/10.34659/eis.2024.88.1.732.

Abstract

The aim of this article is to identify the critical factors and assess the specific actions conditioning the development of electromobility from the perspective of a zero-carbon, innovative and resilient economy. These issues have a particular dimension in relation to individual mobility. The study used a combination of primary and secondary data, using various research methods and techniques, such as descriptive analysis, desk research, diagnostic survey, cause-and-effect analysis and statistical analysis. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in managerial positions. The literature review and the results of our own research confirmed the importance of the identified factors in the uptake of electric cars. At the same time, the study highlighted the high complexity of problems regarding investment decisions determining the development of electromobility. Taking active steps to increase the level of sustainability and resilience of the electromobility system should first focus on further development of charging infrastructure, uptake of electric vehicles, development of renewable energy sources and creation of an electric vehicle battery value chain. The main expectations for the development of electromobility are to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce dependence on fossil fuel supplies, increase the competitiveness and innovation of the economy and reduce external costs generated by transport. Attempts were made to achieve the originality of the research carried out through its measurable nature. The proposed electromobility development model may contribute to the improvement of decision-making tools regarding the allocation of public funds and other sources for investments so that they contribute to the sustainable development of mobility systems.

PDF

References

Abas, A. P., Yong, J. E. D., Mahlia, T. M. I., & Hannan, M. A. (2019). Techno-economic analysis and environmental impact of electric vehicle. IEEE Access, 7, 98565-98578. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2929530

Arias, N. B., Hashemi, S., Andersen, P. B., Træholt, C., & Romero, R. (2020). Assessment of economic benefits for EV owners participating in the primary frequency regulation markets. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 120, 105985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2020.105985

Baker, E., Goldstein, A. P., & Azevedo, I. M. L. (2021). A perspective on equity implications of net zero energy systems. Energy and Climate Change, 2, 100047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egycc.2021.100047

Barrett, J., & Bivens, J. (2021). The stakes for workers in how policymakers manage the coming shift to all-electric vehicles. Washington: Economic Policy Institute. https://www.epi.org/publication/ev-policy-workers/

Champagne, M., & Dubé, J. (2023). The impact of transport infrastructure on firms’ location decision: A meta-analysis based on a systematic literature review. Transport Policy, 131, 139-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2022.11.015

Chinoracky, R., Stalmasekova, N., & Corejova, T. (2022). Trends in the Field of Electromobility—From the Perspective of Market Characteristics and Value-Added Services: Literature Review. Energies, 15(17), 6144. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176144

Coban, H. H., Rehman, A., & Mohamed, A. (2022). Analyzing the Societal Cost of Electric Roads Compared to Batteries and Oil for All Forms of Road Transport. Energies, 15(5), 1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051925

Das, H., Rahman, M., Li, S., & Tan, C. (2020). Electric vehicles standards, charging infrastructure, and impact on grid integration: A technological review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 120, 109618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.109618

de Souza, J. V. R., de Mello, A. M., & Marx, R. (2019). When is an Innovative Urban Mobility Business Model Sustainable? A Literature Review and Analysis. Sustainability, 11(6), 1761. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061761

Dróżdż, W., Miśkiewicz, R., Pokrzywniak, J., & Elżanowski, F. (2019). Urban electromobility in the context of Industry 4.0. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek.

Du, H., Liu, D., Sovacool, B. K., Wang, Y., Ma, S., & Li, R. Y. M. (2018). Who buys New Energy Vehicles in China? Assessing social-psychological predictors of purchasing awareness, intention, and policy. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psycholgy and Behaviour, 58, 56-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2018.05.008

ETC/CME. (2020). Renewable energy in Europe 2020: recent growth and knock-on effects. https://www.eionet.europa.eu/etcs/etc-cme/products/etc-cme-reports/etc-cme-report-7-2020-renewable-energy-in-europe-2020-recent-growth-and-knock-on-effects

European Commission. (2019). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, The European Green Deal, Pub. L. No. 52019DC0640. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM%3A2019%3A640%3AFIN

European Commission. (2020). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy – putting European transport on track for the future, Pub. L. No. 52020DC0789. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52020DC0789

European Commission. (2021). EU Reference Scenario 2020: energy, transport and GHG emissions: trends to 2050. Luxembourg: Publications Office. https://pure.iiasa.ac.at/id/eprint/17356/

European Commission. (2023). UE Transport in Figures: Statistical Pocketbook 2023. https://transport.ec.europa.eu/facts-funding/studies-data/eu-transport-figures-statistical-pocketbook/statistical-pocketbook-2023_en

Fescioglu-Unver, N., & Yıldız, A. M. (2023). Electric vehicle charging service operations: A review of machine learning applications for infrastructure planning, control, pricing and routing. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 188, 113873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2023.113873

Gallo, M., & Marinelli, M. (2020). Sustainable Mobility: A Review of Possible Actions and Policies. Sustainability, 12(18), 7499. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187499

Gevaers, R., de Voorde, E., & van Vanelslander, T. (2014). Cost Modelling and Simulation of Last-mile Characteristics in an Innovative B2C Supply Chain Environment with Implications on Urban Areas and Cities. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 125, 410-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1483

Ghasemi-Marzbali, A. (2022). Fast-charging station for electric vehicles, challenges and issues: a comprehensive review. Journal Energy Storage, 49, 104136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2022.104136

Gómez Vilchez, J. J., Julea, A., Lodi, C., & Marotta, A. (2022). An analysis of trends and policies promoting alternative fuel vessels and their refueling infrastructure in Europe. Frontiers in Energy Research, 10, 904500. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2022.904500

Gupta, R. S., Tyagi, A., & Anand, S. (2021). Optimal allocation of electric vehicles charging infrastructure, policies and future trends. Journal of Energy Storage, 43, 103291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2021.103291

Haidar, B., & Aguilar Rojas, M. T. (2022). The Relationship between Public Charging Infrastructure Deployment and Other Socio-Economic Factors and Electric Vehicle Adoption In France. Research in Transportation Economics, 95, 101208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2022.101208

Hall D., Xie Y., Minjares R., Lutsey N., Kodjak D. (2021). Decarbonizing road transport by 2050: Effective policies to accelerate the transition to zero-emission vehicles. International Council on Clean Transportation. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.33438.87361

Hasan, S. (2021). Assessment of Electric Vehicle Repurchase Intention: A Survey-Based Study on the Norwegian EV Market. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 11, 100439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2021.100439

Helmers, E., Dietz, J., & Weiss, M. (2020). Sensitivity Analysis in the Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric vs. Combustion Engine Cars under Approximate Real-World Conditions. Sustainability, 12(3), 1241. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031241

IEA. (2023). CO2 Emissions in 2022. https://www.iea.org/reports/co2-emissions-in-2022

IPCC. (2023). Climate Change 2023: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg2/

Jagiełło, A. (2021). Elektromobilność w kształtowaniu rozwoju drogowego transportu miejskiego w Polsce. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. (in Polish).

Karmaker, A. K., Behrens, S., Hossain, M. J., & Pota, H. (2023). Multi-stakeholder perspectives for transport electrification: A review on placement and scheduling of electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Journal of Cleaner Production, 427, 139145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.139145

Kolz, D., & Schwartz, M. (2017). Key Factors for the Development of Electro Mobility. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 224, 225-233. https://doi.org/10.2495/ESUS170211

Kumar, R. R., & Alok, K. (2020). Adoption of electric vehicle: A literature review and prospects for sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 253, 119911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119911

Leach, F., Kalghatgi, G., Stone, R., & Miles, P. (2020). The scope for improving the efficiency and environmental impact of internal combustion engines. Transportation Engineering, 1, 100005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.treng.2020.100005

Li, W., Stanula, P., Egede, P., Kara, S., & Herrmann, C. (2016). Determining the main factors influencing the energy consumption of electric vehicles in the usage phase. Procedia CIRP, 48, 352-357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.03.014

Lia, X., Lepoura, D., Heymannc, F., & Maréchal, F. (2023). Electrification and digitalization effects on sectoral energy demand and consumption: A prospective study towards 2050. Energy, 279, 127992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2023.127992

Liao, F., Molin, E. J. E., & van Wee, G. P. (2017). Consumer preferences for electric vehicles: a literature review. Transport Reviews, 37(3), 252-275. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2016.1230794

Liu, Z., Song, J., Kubal, J., Susarla, N., Knehr, K. W., Islam, E., & Ahmed, S. (2021). Comparing total cost of ownership of battery electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Energy Policy, 158, 112564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112564

Magalhães, I., & Santos, E. (2022). Evaluating the potential of mobility plans for achieving sustainable urban development. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 43, 100743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2021.100743

Mantouka, E. G., Fafoutellis, P., Vlahogianni, E. I., & Oprea, G.-M. (2022). Understanding user perception and feelings for autonomous mobility on demand in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 16, 100692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2022.100692

Milakis, D., van Arem, B., & Vanwee, B. (2017). Policy and society related implications of automated driving: a review of literature and directions for future research. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 21(4), 324-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/15472450.2017.1291351

Mirzaei, M. A., Yazdankhah, A. S., Mohammadi-Ivatloo, B., Marzband, M., Shafie-khah, M., & Catalão, J. (2019). Stochastic network-constrained co-optimization of energy and reserve products in renewable energy integrated power and gas networks with energy storage system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 223, 747-758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.021

Mnusso, A., & Rothengatter, W. (2013). Internalisation of external costs of transport–A target driven approach with a focus on climate change. Transport Policy, 29, 303-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2012.07.001

Moreno, A. T., Michalski, A., Llorca, C., & Moeckel, R. (2018). Shared autonomous vehicles effect on vehicle-km traveled and average trip duration. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 8969353. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8969353

Nour, M., Chaves-Ávila, J. P., Magdy, G., & Sánchez-Miralles, Á. (2020). Review of positive and negative impacts of electric vehicles charging on electric power systems. Energies, 13(18), 4675. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184675

Petruccelli, U. (2015). Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 54, 61-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2015.05.004

Rajak, S., Parthiban, P., & Dhanalakshmi, R. (2016). Sustainable transportation systems performance evaluation using fuzzy logic. Ecological Indicators, 71, 503-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.07.031

Regulation (EU) 2023/1542 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2023 concerning batteries and waste batteries, amending Directive 2008/98/EC and Regulation (EU) 2019/1020 and repealing Directive 2006/66/EC, Pub. L. No. 32023R1542, 191 OJ L (2023). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2023/1542/oj

Rehman, M. A., Numan, M., Tahir, H., Rahman, U., Khan, M. W., & Iftikhar, M. Z. (2023). A comprehensive overview of vehicle to everything (V2X) technology for sustainable EV adoption. Journal of Energy Storage, 74, 109304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2023.109304

Ren, R., Hu, W., Dong, J., Sun, B., Chen, Y., & Chen, Z. (2020). A Systematic Literature Review of Green and Sustainable Logistics: Bibliometric Analysis, Research Trend and Knowledge Taxonomy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), 261. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010261

Romare M. & Dahllöf L. (2017). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Batteries. Stockholm: Swedish Environmental Research Institute.

Sadeghian, O., Oshnoei, A., Mohammadi-ivatloo, B., Vahidinasab, V., & Anvari-Moghaddam, A. (2022). A comprehensive review on electric vehicles smart charging: Solutions, strategies, technologies, and challenges. Journal of Energy Storage, 54, 105241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2022.105241

Sanguesa, J. A., Torres-Sanz, V., Garrido, P., Martinez, F. J., & Marquez-Barja, J. M. (2021). A review on electric vehicles: Technologies and challenges. Smart Cities, 4(1), 372-404. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010022

Shafiei, M., & Ghasemi-Marzbali, A. (2022). Fast-charging station for electric vehicles, challenges and issues: A comprehensive review. Journal of Energy Storage, 49, 104136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2022.104136

Shaukat, N., Khan, B., Ali, S. M., Mehmood, C. A., Khan, J., Farid, U., Majid, M., Anwar, S. M., Jawad, M., & Ullah, Z. (2018). A survey on electric vehicle transportation within smart grid system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 1329-1349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.092

Shi, R., Li, S., Zhang, P., & Lee, K. Y. (2020). Integration of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles in V2G network with adjustable robust optimization. Renewable Energy, 153, 1067-1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.02.027

Silvestri L., Forcina A., Silvestri C., Traverso M. (2021). Circularity potential of rare earths for sustainable mobility: Recent developments, challenges and future prospects. Journal of Cleaner Production, 72, 101885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101885

Sovacool, B. K., Kim, J., & Yang, M. (2021). The hidden costs of energy and mobility: A global meta-analysis and research synthesis of electricity and transport externalities. Energy Research & Social Science, 72, 101885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101885

Sroka, M. (2022). The impact of the human factor on the functioning of the quality management system in the enterprise. Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, 72(144), 175-182. https://doi.org/10.17402/546

Suhail, M., Akhtar, I., & Kirmani, S. (2021). Objective functions and infrastructure for optimal placement of electrical vehicle charging station: a comprehensive survey. IETE Journal of Research, 69(8), 5250-5260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03772063.2021.1959425

Thompson, A. W., & Perez, Y. (2020). Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) energy services, value streams, and regulatory policy implications. Energy Policy, 137, 111136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111136

Tian, M. W., & Talebizadehsardari, P. (2021). Energy cost and efficiency analysis of building resilience against power outage by shared parking station for electric vehicles and demand response program. Energy, 215, 119058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119058

van Soest, H. L., den Elzen, M. G., & van Vuuren, D. P. (2021). Net-zero emission targets for major emitting countries consistent with the Paris Agreement. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2140. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22294-x

Victor-Gallardo, L., Roccard, J., Campos, P., Malley, C. S., Lefevre, E. N., & Quiros-Tortos, J. (2022). Identifying cross-sectoral policy synergies for decarbonization: towards shortlived climate pollutant mitigation action in Costa Rica. Journal of Cleaner Production, 379, 134781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.134781

Wappelhorst, S. (2021). On the electrification path: Europe’s progress towards clean transportation. https://theicct.org/publication/on-the-electrification-path-europes-progress-towards-clean-transportation/

Weber, J. (2022). Bewegende Zeiten: Mobilität der Zukunft. Berlin: Springer.

Weber, K. M., & Rohracher, H. (2012). Legitimizing research, technology and innovation policies for transformative change: Combining insights from innovation systems and multi-level perspective in a comprehensive ‘failures’ framework. Research Policy, 41(6), 1037-1047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2011.10.015

Woo, J., Choi, H., & Ahn, J. (2017). Well-to-wheel analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for electric vehicles based on electricity generation mix: a global perspective. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 51, 340-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.01.005

Xia, X., Li, P., Xia, Z., Wu, R., & Cheng, Y. (2022). Life cycle carbon footprint of electric vehicles in different countries: A review. Separation and Purification Technology, 301, 122063. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2022.122063

Yu, A., Wei, Y., Chen, W., Peng, N., & Peng, L. (2018). Life cycle environmental impacts and carbon emissions: a case study of electric and gasoline vehicles in China. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 65, 409-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2018.09.009

Yu, H., Niu, S., Shang, Y., Shao, Z., Jia, Y., & Jian, L. (2022). Electric vehicles integration and vehicle-to-grid operation in active distribution grids: A comprehensive review on power architectures, grid connection standards and typical applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 168, 112812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2022.112812

Zhao, X., Ke, Y., Zuo, J., Xiong, W., & Wu, P. (2020). Evaluation of sustainable transport research in 2000–2019. Journal of Cleaner Production, 256(2), 120404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120404

Zuo, T., Wei, H., & Chen, N. (2021). Incorporating low-stress bicycling connectivity into expanded transit service coverage. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2675(4), 102614. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198121998956

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.